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CAS CH 102 (94)
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CHEM152 Review Notes.docx

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CAS CH 102
Professor
Afonso
Semester
Spring

Description
CHEM152 ReviewCommon Ion effectA common Ion appears in an equilibrium reaction but also comes from a source other than that reactionThe common ion effect is the shift in equilibrium caused by the addition of a compound having an ion in common with the dissolved substancesCommon examples include solutions containing both a weak acid HA and its salt NaA or KA etc Occurs in a solution containing a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acidBuffer SolutionsThe common ion effect is the basis for buffer solutionsA solution containing a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid will be a bufferA solution containing both HF and NaF is an example of a buffer solution The NaF will provide F ionsA buffer solution resists change in pH when an acid or base is added to itSame mole ratio buffers works best HendersonHassel Balch Equation Equation is based on the assumption that the initial concentration of the acid and base component of the buffer equal the equilibrium concentrations this assumption will always hold true for any decent bufferAcidConjugate base pH of bufferpKapH of the buffer depends on the ratio of AHAThis equation can only be used to solve for the pH of buffer solutions How buffers resist pH changeA buffer solution will resist change in pH when an acid or base is added to itoLets look at chemical equations to see whyConsider a HANaA bufferoIf add base to buffer HAOHAH2OThe acid HA in the buffer neutralizes the added base and is converted to conjugate base AoIf add acid to buffer AHHAThe base A in the buffer neutralizes the added acid and is converted to conjugate acid HABuffering CapacityRefers to the relative amount of acid H or base OH the buffer can absorb without significantly changing the pH
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