PS101, Lec 9: 02/19/2013
Finished psych of perception.
Psychology of Learning:
Learning is conditioning.
Gets back to Behaviorism:
Conditioning. Two types:
Classical conditioning (Pavlovian conditioning).
Skinner: Operant conditioning (Skinner conditioning).
Experiment by: Pavlov with dogs (showed the first example of classical conditioning) and Thorndike with
cats (showed the first example of operant conditioning).
Thorndike preceded skinner. Thorndike was the inventor of operant conditioning. Skinner continued on that
idea and wrote a whole book explaining it.
Skinner did schedules of reinforcements.
2. Habituation and generalization
3. Extinction and reinstatement
4. Classical conditioning “passive”
5. Instrumental conditioning
US: Elicits a response the very first time (also called a reflex).
UR: Response the first time to the US.
Can condition the dog to respond to the bell.
Learning is making a CR to a desired CS. Traditional psychology: S > R. Behaviorism is the tenant of conditioning.
Association of bell and steak can strengthen over time.
Acquisition curve (learning curve). Showing a relationship (or not) between the number of trials and
the strength of CR. For classical conditioning. Acquisition of CR.
Watson: took Pavlov’s conditioning methods on animals and applied them to humans. Little Albert
Little albert was unusually friendly with furry animals. Every time they put a rabbit in front of him and he
reaches out to touch it they’d hit the table in front of him. Conditioned fear in little albert. Classical
conditioning can develop fearful responses. Developed phobias this way from fury animals. Systematic
desensitization to treat anxiety disorders such as phobias. Especially PTSD.
If you pair CS + US > CR.
If CS is presented without the US eventually the CR is extinguished. Learns there’s no longer a relationship
between the CS and the CR. Called Extinction.
If there’s a rest period after the extinction you get a spontaneous recovery curve (from the extinction) where
you might try the CR just to check if it works.
Habituation: Decline in response to stimuli that have … slides.
Response to a stimulus is extinguished from an initial response.
Woman in NY with an UR. Learns to not even notice the guy lying on the ground.
You can have two potential UCS. Pair one of them to the steak (light). Then pair the bell and the light. Dog
will salivate to the bell now. Not as strong a response as to the light, but you still get a response.
You get a generalization when you