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Lecture 6

HIST 1220 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Trail Of Broken Treaties, City Newspaper, Judith Sargent Murray

Course Code
HIST 1220

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Pick up from previous class, September 16, 2016
Jewish migration to the United States was different from other people's because Jewish people
were more apt to relocate as families. 43% of Jews who arrived here in the in the late 19th early
20th century were women and they were more apt to relocate geminately. From 1889-1924: 1.8
million Jews came to the United States only 93 thousands returned. A vast majority of them
stayed. And a lot of that was connected to the religious persecution of Jews in Eastern Europe
and Russia. In 1882 when zhar Alexander II was assassinated just as Jews had been blamed
throughout history for things that they actually had no involvement in, a lot of finger pointing in
Russia that Jews were behind the assassination and they were thrown in prison or relocated
into ghettos. So to escape all of that, many would make the choice to leave and leave forever.
With few of them returning, the really had no place that they could truly call home.
Now immigration took place very quickly, making cities very overcrowded. By 1900 over. 80% of
the population in cities were made up by immigrants. Now, in New York City most newcomers
ended up residing in what were known as Row Houses. That would be row after row after row
of tenement dwellings. A stereotypical Row House was about 20 feet wide, looking at in from
the font and about 80 feet in depth and about 3-4 stories high. Windows in the front, windows
in the back but along the 80 foot stretches what separated one 3-4 row house from another
was a brick wall. So no windows, no lighting on the sides, no fresh air. If you got stuck living in
the middle units, you had no access to direct sunlight or fresh air. Now, eventually building
reforms would take place in cities, trying to resolve any housing issues. One of the reforms was
decided that on future Row House construction was that they put a 2-3 foot alleyway to
separate those 3-4 story dwellings. That way there could be Windows giving the residence
access to fresh air and sunlight. This sounded like a good idea but usually the alleyways were
the location of raw sewage and rubbish would build up, in many cases making it worse. Those
Row Houses were designed to house 50 people, in many cases ended up housing 150-200
Now, smell in those urban settings was gross as well. For example, by 1900, there were still 3.5
million horses found on city streets. Each of them extracted about twenty points of manure
daily and a gallon of urine daily. An average American back then produced twice as much trash
as an average European. Newcomers to the United States attempted to relocate to
neighborhoods of the same people from where they came. So, in New York City: Little Italy, Jew
Town, Chinatown etc. that would help ease the relocation to the United States, living among
the people of the same decent: speaking the same language, praying to the same God, eating
the same foods, drank the same beverages, wore the same style clothing. It could also help
those newcomers find employment as well.
One of the new things many newcomers had a hard time adjusting to was working like
Americans did at the time. Americans had that Calvinist work ethic, getting up early in the
morning, working until noontime, having a quick lunch and work the afternoon and at the end
of the day had their main meal. Many newcomers came from backgrounds where they ease
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