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Reference Guide

Fundamental Physical Constants - Reference Guides

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Department
Physics
Course Code
PHYS 24300
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All

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Fundamental Physical Constants
General Constants
Atomic Constants
Quantity Symbol SI System CGS System FPS System
Quantity Symbol SI System CGS System FPS System
Speed of light in a vacuum c 2.99792458 ¥108m/s 2.99792458 ¥1010 cm/s 9.83571056 ¥108ft/s
Astronomical unit A.U. 1.49597870 ¥1011 m1.49597870 ¥1013 cm 4.90806660 ¥1011 ft
Light year ly 9.46053621 ¥1015 m9.46053621 ¥1017 cm 3.10385045 ¥1016 ft
Parsec pc 3.08567808 ¥1016 m3.08567808 ¥1018 cm 1.01236157 ¥1017 ft
Permeability of vacuum µo4π ¥10–7 N/m21 (dimensionless in emu) 1.16745403 ¥107 N/ft2
Permittivity of vacuum (1/
µ
oc2)eo8.854187817 ¥1012 F/m 1 (dimensionless in esu) 2.698756447 ¥1012 F/ft
Gravitational constant G 6.67259 ¥1011 m3/kg/s26.67259 ¥1012 cm3/g•s21.068846 ¥10–9 ft3/lb•s2
Standard gravity go9.80665 m/s2980.665 cm/s232.17404856 ft/s2
Gravitational conversion factor gc9.80665 m/kg/kgf/s2980.665 cm•g/gfs232.17404856 ft•lb/lbfs2
Planck constant h 6.6260755 ¥1034 J/s 6.6260755 ¥10–27 erg•s 1.5723916 ¥10–32 ft•pdl•s
Planck mass [(hc/2
π
G)1/2]mh2.17671 ¥108 kg 2.17671 ¥10–5 g4.79882 ¥108 lb
Planck constant (molar) NAh3.99031323 ¥1010 J/s/mol 3.99031323 ¥10–3 erg•s/mol 4.29513741 ¥106 ft•pdl•s/lb-mol
NAhc 0.11962658 J/m/mol 1.1962658 ¥108erg•cm/mol 1.2876498 ¥103ft2pdl/lb-mol
Standard atmosphere atm 101325 Pa 1.01325 ¥106dyn/cm26.808726 ¥104pdl/ft2(14.6959 psi)
Permeability (dry air) µAIR 4π ¥107 N/m21 (dimensionless in emu) 1.16745403 ¥107 N/ft2
Permittivity (dry air at STP) eAIR 1.000590 F/m 1.000590 ¥102 F/cm 0.304980 F/ft
Specific heat (dry air at constant P) CpAIR 1.00468 ¥103J/kg/K 1.00468 ¥107erg/g•K 6.00794 ¥103ft•pdl/lb•°R
Specific heat (dry air at constant V) CvAIR 7.17625 ¥102J/kg/K 7.17625 ¥106erg/g•K 4.29136 ¥103ft•pdl/lb•°R
Apparent molecular weight (dry air) MwAIR 2.89644 ¥10–2 kg/mol 28.9644 g/mol 6.38556 ¥10–2 lb/lb-mol
Molecular gas constant (1 kg dry air) RAIR 287.05 J/kg/K 2.8705 ¥106erg/g•K 1.71654 ¥103ft•pdl/lb•°R
Avogadro number NA6.0221367 ¥1023mol16.0221367 ¥1023mol12.7315953 ¥1026lb-mol1
Atomic mass unit u 1.6605402 ¥1027 kg 1.6605402 ¥1024 g 3.6608649 ¥1027 lb
Electron volt eV 1.60217733 ¥1019 J 1.60217733 ¥1012 erg 3.80202455 ¥1018 ft•pdl
Faraday constant F 9.6485309 ¥104C/mol 2.8925568 ¥1014cm3/2•g1/2/s•mol 3.6609376 ¥1013ft3/2•lb1/2/lb-mol•s
Boltzmann constant (R/NA)k 1.380658 ¥1023 J/K 1.380658 ¥1016 erg/K 1.820195 ¥1022 ft•pdl/°R
k/h 2.083674 ¥1010Hz/K 2.083674 ¥1010Hz/K 1.157597 ¥1010Hz/°R
Loschmidt constant (NA/Vm)no2.686763 ¥1025m32.686763 ¥1019cm37.608066 ¥1023ft3
Sackur-Tetrode constant So/R –1.164856 (101325 Pa) 1.151693 (106dyn/cm2)–1.164856 (68087.26 pdl/ft2)
[S = So+3/2RlnAr - Rln(pa/po) + 5/2Rln(T/K)]
Stefan–Boltzmann constant s5.67051 ¥10–8 W/m2/K45.67051 ¥103 erg/cm2s•K41.19088 ¥10–8 pdl/ft•s•°R4
First radiation constant (2
π
hc2)c13.7417749 ¥1016 W/m23.7417749 ¥103 erg•cm2/s 9.5576708 ¥10–14 ft3pdl/s
Second radiation constant (hc/k) c20.01438769 m/K 1.438769 cm•K 8.4966673 ¥10–2 ft•°R
Wien displacement law constant b 2.897756 ¥103 m/K 0.2897756 cm•K 1.71127323 ¥102 ft•°R
Ideal gas molar volume at STP Vm22.41410 L/mol 22414.10 cm3/mol 359.0394 ft3/lb-mol
Molar gas constant R 8.314510 J/mol/K 8.314510 ¥107erg/mol•K 4.972036 ¥104ft•pdl/lb-mol•°R
8.314510 Pa/m3/mol/K 8.314510 ¥107dyn•cm/mol•K 1545.356 ft•lbf/lb-mol•°R
0.08205783 L/atm/mol/K 82.05783 cm3atm/mol•K 10.73164 ft3psia/lb-mol•°R
1.985887 calIT/mol/K 1.986503 calI5/mol•K 500.7699 calTHERM/lb-mol•°R
Fine-structure constant (
µ
oce2/2h) a7.29735308 ¥103 7.29735308 ¥103 7.2973530 ¥10–3
Rydberg constant (mec
a
2/2h) R1.0973731534 ¥107m–1 1.0973731534 ¥105cm1 3.3447933716 ¥106ft–1
Rhc 2.1798741 ¥10–18 J 2.1798741 ¥10–9 erg 5.1729198 ¥10–17 ft•pdl
Bohr radius (
a
/4
π
R
)ao5.29177249 ¥1011 m 5.29177249 ¥10–9 cm 1.73614583 ¥1010 ft
Quantum of circulation h/2me3.63694807 ¥10–4 m2/s 3.63694807 cm2/s 3.91477832 ¥103 ft2/s
SI Units SI Prefixes
Quantity Name Symbol
Quantity Name Symbol
Quantity Units Quantity Units
Value Prefix Symbol
Quantity Units
Length meter m
Mass kilogram kg
Time seconds s
Electric current ampere A
Thermodymanic temperature kelvin K
Amount of substance mole mol
Luminous intensity candela cd
Plane angle radian rad
Solid angle steradian sr
Area m2
Volume m3
Frequency Hz (hertz) or s–1
Density kg m–3
Concentration mol m–3
Velocity m s1
Angular velocity rad s–1
Acceleration m s–2
Force N (newton) or
m kg s–2
Pressure, stress Pa (pascal) or
N m–2
Viscosity (dynamic) Pa s
Viscosity (kinematic) m2s1
Energy, work, J (joule) or N m
quantity of heat
Power, radiant flux W (watt) or J s–1
Quantity of electricity C (coulomb) or A s
Potentail difference, V (volt) or W A–1
electromotive force
Electric field strength V m–1
Electric resistance W(ohm) or V A–1
Electric conductance S (siemens) or W–1
Capacitance F (farad) or C V1
Magnetic flux Wb (weber) or V s
Magnetic flux density T (tesla) or Wb m2
Inductance H (henry) or Ws
Magnetic field strength A m–1
Magnetomotive force A (ampere)
Wavenumber m–1 or cm–1
Activity (of a radionuclide) Bq (becquerel) or s–1
Absorbed dose Gy (grey) or J kg–1
Dose equivalent Sv or J kg1
Luminous flux lm (lumen) or cd sr
Luminance cd m–2
Heat flux density W m–2
irradiance
Heat capacity, entropy J K–1
Specific heat capacity, J kg1 K–1
specific entropy
Thermal conductivity W m1 K–1
Molar energy J mol–1
Molar entropy, J mol–1 K–1
molar heat capacity
10-21 zepto z
10-18 atto a
10-15 femto f
10-12 pico p
10-9 nano n
10-6 micro µ
10-3 milli m
10-2 centi c
10-1 deci d
100——
101deca da
102hecto h
103kilo k
106mega M
109giga G
1012 tera T
1015 peta P
1018 exa E
1021 zetta Z
BASE UNITS DERIVED UNITS (CONTD) DERIVED UNITS (CONT’D)
DERIVED UNITS
TM
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Description
permacharts TM F u n d a m e n t a lP h y s ic a lC o n s t a n t s General Constants Quantity Symbol SI System CGS System FPS System 8 10 8 Speed of light in a vacuum c 2.99792458 ¥ 10 m /s 2.99792458 ¥ 10 c/s 9.83571056 ¥ 10 ft/s Astronomical unit A.U. 1.49597870 ¥ 1011m 1.49597870 ¥ 103 c 4.90806660 ¥ 1011f Light year ly 9.46053621 ¥ 1015m 9.46053621 ¥ 107 c 3.10385045 ¥ 1016f Parsec pc 3.08567808 ¥ 1016m 3.08567808 ¥ 108 c 1.01236157 ¥ 1017f Permeability of vacuum µ 4π ¥ 10–7N/m2 1(dimensionless in emu) 1.16745403 ¥ 10–7N/ft 2 o –12 –12 Permittivity of vacuuµ o ) eo 8.854187817 ¥ 10 F/m 1 (dimensionless in esu) 2.698756447 ¥ 10 F/ft Gravitational constant G 6.67259 ¥ 1011 m /kg/s 6.67259 ¥ 1012cm /•s 2 1.068846 ¥ 109 f /b•s2 2 2 2 Standard gravity go 9.80665 m/s 980.665 cm/s 32.17404856 ft/s Gravitational conversion factor gc 9.80665 m/kg/kf/s 980.665 cm•g/f•s2 32.17404856 ft•lbf•b s Planck constant h 6.6260755 ¥ 10–34J/s 6.6260755 ¥ 1027erg•s 1.5723916 ¥ 1032 f•pdl•s Planck mass [(hcπ G)1/] m h 2.17671 ¥ 108 kg 2.17671 ¥ 105g 4.79882 ¥ 108 l Planck constant (molar) N h 3.99031323 ¥ 10–10J/s/mol 3.99031323 ¥ 103 eg•s/mol 4.29513741 ¥ 10–6f•pdl•s/lb-mol A 8 3 2 NAhc 0.11962658 J/m/mol 1.1962658 ¥ 10 erg•cm/mol 1.2876498 ¥ 10 f •dl/lb-mol Standard atmosphere atm 101325 Pa 1.01325 ¥ 10 dyn/cm 6.808726 ¥ 10 pdl/ft (14.6959 psi) Permeability (dry air) µAIR 4π ¥ 10–7N/m2 1 (dimensionless in emu) 1.16745403 ¥ 10–7N/ft –2 Permittivity (dry air at STP) eAIR 1.000590 F/m 1.000590 ¥ 10 F/cm 0.304980 F/ft Specific heat (dry air at constant P) CpAIR 1.00468 ¥ 10 J/kg/K 1.00468 ¥ 10 erg/g•K 6.00794 ¥ 10 ft•pdl/lb•°R 2 6 3 Specific heat (dry air at constant V) CvAIR 7.17625 ¥ 10 J/kg/K 7.17625 ¥ 10 erg/g•K 4.29136 ¥ 10 ft•pdl/lb•°R Apparent molecular weight (dry air) Mw AIR 2.89644 ¥ 102 kg/mol 28.9644 g/mol 6.38556 ¥ 102 lb/lb-mol Molecular gas constant (1 kg dry air) RAIR 287.05 J/kg/K 2.8705 ¥ 10 erg/g•K 1.71654 ¥ 10 ft•pdl/lb•°R 2 –1 23 –1 26 –1 Avogadro number NA 6.0221367 ¥ 10 mol 6.0221367 ¥ 10 mol 2.7315953 ¥ 10 lb-mol Atomic mass unit u 1.6605402 ¥ 10–7 kg 1.6605402 ¥ 1024g 3.6608649 ¥ 1027 lb Electron volt eV 1.60217733 ¥ 10–19J 1.60217733 ¥ 1012erg 3.80202455 ¥ 10–8 ft•pdl Faraday constant F 9.6485309 ¥ 10 C/mol 2.8925568 ¥ 10 cm3/•g1//s•mol 3.6609376 ¥ 103ft/•lb12/lb-mol•s Boltzmann constant (R/N ) k 1.380658 ¥ 10–3 J/K 1.380658 ¥ 1016erg/K 1.820195 ¥ 1022 ft•pdl/°R A 1 10 10 k/h 2.083674 ¥ 10 Hz/K 2.083674 ¥ 10 Hz/K 1.157597 ¥ 10 Hz/°R Loschmidt constant AN mV ) no 2.686763 ¥ 102 m–3 2.686763 ¥ 109cm –3 7.608066 ¥ 103 ft3 6 2 2 Sackur-Tet3ode constant 5 So/R – 1.164856 (101325 Pa) –1.151693 (10 dyn/cm ) – 1.164856 (68087.26 pdl/ft ) [S = So+ / 2 lnr -Rln(pa/ o + /2Rln(T/K)] Stefan–Boltzmann constant s 5.67051 ¥ 108 W/m / 4 5.67051 ¥ 103erg/cm ••K 4 1.19088 ¥ 108 pdl/ft•s•°R 2 –16 2 –3 2 –14 3 First radiation constπ h )2 c1 3.7417749 ¥ 10 W/m 3.7417749 ¥ 10 erg•cm / 9.5576708 ¥ 10 f •dl/s Second radiation constant (hc/k) c2 0.01438769 m/K 1.438769 cm•K 8.4966673 ¥ 102 ft•°R Wien displacement law constant b 2.897756 ¥ 10–3m/K 0.2897756 cm•K 1.71127323 ¥ 10–2ft•°R m Ideal gas molar volume at STP Vm 22.41410 L/mol 22414.10 cm /mol 359.0394 ft /lb-mol Molar gas constant R 8.314510 J/mol/K 8.314510 ¥ 10 erg/mol•K 4.972036 ¥ 10 ft•pdl/lb-mol•°R o 3 7 8.314510 Pa/m /mol/K 8.314510 ¥ 10 dyn•cm/mol•K 1545.356 ft•fb /lb-mol•°R c 0.08205783 L/atm/mol/K 82.05783 cm •atm/mol•K 10.73164 ft •psia/lb-mol•°R . 1.985887 caIT/mol/K 1.986503 cI5 /mol•K 500.7699 caTHERMlb-mol•°R s t Atomic Constants r a Quantity Symbol SI System CGS System FPS System Fine-structure constano (µ ce /2h) a 7.29735308 ¥ 10–3 7.29735308 ¥ 103 7.2973530 ¥ 103 h 2 7 –1 5 –1 6 –1 Rydberg constant em ca /2h) R∞ 1.0973731534 ¥ 10 m 1.0973731534 ¥ 10 cm 3.3447933716 ¥ 10 ft c R∞hc 2.1798741 ¥ 10–18J 2.1798741 ¥ 109erg 5.1729198 ¥ 1017 ft•pdl Bohr radius (a/4πR ) a 5.29177249 ¥ 10–11m 5.29177249 ¥ 109 cm 1.73614583 ¥ 10–10ft a ∞ o Quantum of circulation h/2me 3.63694807 ¥ 10–4m /s 3.63694807 cm /s 3.91477832 ¥ 10–3ft /s m r SI Units SI Prefixes e BASE UNITS DERIVED UNITS (CONT’D) DERIVED UNITS (CONT’D) Value Prefix Symbol -21 p Quantity Name Symbol Quantity Units Quantity Units 10 zepto z Length meter m Angular velocity rad s Magnetic flux densityT (tesla) orWb m 10-18 atto a –2 -15 Mass kilogram kg Acceleration m s Inductance H (henry) or W s 10 femto f Time seconds s Force N (newton) or Magnetic field strengA m–1 10-12 pico p Electric current ampere A m kg s2 Magnetomotive force A (ampere) 10-9 nano n Thermodymanic temperature kelvin K Pressure,stress Pa –2ascal) or Wavenumber m or cm –1 10-6 micro µ Amount of substance mole mol N m Activity (of a radionuclide) Bq (becquerel)10r s milli m Viscosity (dynamic) Pa s –1 -2 Luminous intensity candela cd 2 –1 Absorbed dose Gy (grey) or J kg 10 centi c Quantity Name Symbol Viscosity (kinematic) m s Dose equivalent Sv or J kg 10-1 deci d Energy,work, J (joule) or N m 0 Plane angle radian rad quantity of heat Luminous flux lm (lumen) or cd sr 10 — — Solid angle steradian sr –1 Luminance cd m–2 101 deca da Power,radiant flux W (watt) or J s Heat flux density W m –2 102 hecto h DERIVED UNITS Quantity of electricitC (coulomb) orA s Potentail difference, V (volt) orWA irradiance 103 kilo k Quantity Units Heat capacity,entropyJ K–1 106 mega M Area m 2 electromotive force Specific heat capacitJ kg K–1 9 Volume m 3 Electric field strengtV m–1 10 giga G Electric resistance W (ohm) orVA specific entropy 1012 tera T Frequency Hz (hertz) or s Thermal conductivity W m K1 –1 15 Density kg m–3 Electric conductance S (siemens) or W Molar energy J mol1 10 peta P –3 Capacitance F (farad) or C V 1018 exa E Concentration mol m Molar entropy, J mol K–1 21 Velocity m s–1 Magnetic flux Wb (weber) orV s molar heat capacity 10 zetta Z permacharts TM Electromagnetic Constants Quantity Symbol SI System CGS System FPS System Elementary charge e 1.60217733 ¥ 10 –19C 4.80320680 ¥ 10 –10cm 3/•g1/2/s 1.34021962 ¥ 10 –13 ft/2•lb/2/s e/h 2.41798836 ¥ 10 14A/J 8.06554100 ¥ 10 –31/s•cm 1/•g1/2 0.948361368 1/s•ft1/2•lb1/2 –15 –7 –10 Magnetic flux quantum (h/2e) F o 2.06783461 ¥ 10 Wb 2.06783461 ¥ 10 Mx 2.06783461 ¥ 10 kilolines Josephson frequency-voltage quotient 2e/h 4.8359767 ¥ 10 14Hz/V 4.8359767 ¥ 10 22 s/cm3/2•g1/2 1.7331634 ¥ 10 26 s/ft/•lb1/2 Quantized hall conductance e /h 3.87404614 ¥ 10 –5S 3.87404614 ¥ 10 –14s/cm 1.18080926 ¥ 10 –12 s/ft
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