GEOL-1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Unconformity, G1 Phase, Natural Hazard

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5 Feb 2018
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Lecture 8.1 - Geologic Time
Geology in the News
Can deep water sound waves be used to stop tsunamis?
o Breaking the wave up using sound waves that would be generated in the water
o Stop a natural hazard while it is in the process of occurring
Part 1- Relative Dating Techniques
Why Do We Care?
We want to know the age of things
Helps us answer a lot of questions in geology and science
Dating Methods
2 Main Approaches
Relative- where you take events and you place them in a sequence, you’re comparing
them relative to each other
a. Comparing things to each other
b. Very qualitative- not putting an exact number just saying which is older
c. It has a lot of advantages
i. Much easier to learn- faster than learning absolute
ii. Very cheap
Absolute- you put an exact number on something
a. Very quantitative
Relative Dating
Fossils-any evidence of past life
o Past life= before recorded history
o People want to know how old these are
o They knew if they could figure out the ages of the rock the fossil was in, they
could get a better idea of how old the fossil is
Stratigraphy- a discipline within geography that specializes in looking at strata (layers/
beds)
Stratigraphy
Unconformities- a break or a gap in your stratigraphic record
o A time where you don’t have any rocks
o In the layers you don’t have a rock to represent a certain period of time
Unconformities
Why is there a gap?
o You may have a situation where you run out of sediment
o Run out of accommodation space
You just can’t fit anymore
o Start eroding sediment
May be building 3 inches a year but eroding 5 inches a year so you’re
losing sediment overall
Types of Unconformities
3 types, classified by comparing strata above and below the gap
1. Disconformity
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