PHIL 203 Lecture Notes - Lecture 23: Ataraxia, Hellenistic Philosophy, Epicureanism

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History of Ancient Philosophy
11.30.17 Lecture Notes Marcus Aurelius, Meditations II-IV
- Hellenistic philosophers
- 4 main views: Cynics, Skeptics, Epicureans, and the Stoics
- Today we going to about Stoicism
- Stoic: firmly resolute in the face of difficulty
History of Stoic school of philosophy:
- Emotions should be avoided, such as fear and envy
- Skeptics, Epicureans, and Stoics concerned with ataraxia, which is freedom of any
disturbance of the mind
o Epicurean approach: large devotion to the argument of death
Pleasure for the Epicureans are equivalent to ataraxia
- Stoic sage: ideal figure who can make the correct judgment every time given the
circumstances
o Knows what knowledge is available and what knowledge is unavailable and
chooses the right thing that will lead to ataraxia
o The virtuous person
o May not exist
- Te oes fo the Geek od stoa hih eas poh
o Stoics talked about philosophy on their porches all the time
- Founder of Stoic school: Zeno of Citium 334-262 BC
- Epicurus: 341-270 BC
- Zeno
o According to Diogenes, one day Zeno consulted the Oracle
o God told him to take on the complexion of the dead
o No surviving works from Zeno
- Cleanthes: 230-330 BC takes up the “toi oeet ad eoes the head of )eo’s
school
- After Cleanthes is Chrysippis (272-206 BC)
o Wrote many works
- Shift in the movement occurs with Seneca (4 BC-65 AD), a Roman
o Stoicism becomes very popular in Rome
- Next, is Epictetus (55-135 AD) who was a slave and was eventually freed
o Had an important influence on Marcus Aurelius (121-180 AD)
- Zeno divided philosophy into three different branches: logic, physics, and ethics
o Seems to be missing metaphysics, which is deliberate elimination
o Did’t oe theseles ith astat theoetial uestios
o General shift in thinking of moving towards ethics and thinking about how to life
as a major emphasis in philosophy
o Logic included philosophy of language, rhetoric, grammar
o Stoic logic made important advances in logic
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Document Summary

11. 30. 17 lecture notes marcus aurelius, meditations ii-iv. 4 main views: cynics, skeptics, epicureans, and the stoics. Stoic: firmly resolute in the face of difficulty. Emotions should be avoided, such as fear and envy. Skeptics, epicureans, and stoics concerned with ataraxia, which is freedom of any disturbance of the mind: epicurean approach: large devotion to the argument of death, pleasure for the epicureans are equivalent to ataraxia. Te(cid:396)(cid:373) (cid:272)o(cid:373)es f(cid:396)o(cid:373) the g(cid:396)eek (cid:449)o(cid:396)d (cid:862)stoa(cid:863) (cid:449)hi(cid:272)h (cid:373)ea(cid:374)s po(cid:396)(cid:272)h: stoics talked about philosophy on their porches all the time. Founder of stoic school: zeno of citium 334-262 bc. Zeno: according to diogenes, one day zeno consulted the oracle, god told him to take on the complexion of the dead, no surviving works from zeno. Cleanthes: 230-330 bc takes up the toi(cid:272) (cid:373)o(cid:448)e(cid:373)e(cid:374)t a(cid:374)d (cid:271)e(cid:272)o(cid:373)es the head of )e(cid:374)o"s school. After cleanthes is chrysippis (272-206 bc: wrote many works.

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