CLP 3140 Lecture 15: Chapter 7- Suicide Notes
Premium

6 Pages
71 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Clinical Psychology
Course
CLP 3140
Professor
A B E T Y
Semester
Spring

Description
Chapter 7- Suicide - It has been estimated that 1 million people die by suicide each year, more than 38,000 in the United States alone. - Parasuicides: a suicide attempt that does not result in death. What is Suicide? - Suicide: a self-inflicted death in which the person acts intentionally, directly, and consciously. - Accordingly, Shneidman distinguished four kinds of people who intentionally end their lives: the death seeker, death initiator, death ignorer, and death darer. o Death seekers clearly intend to end their lives at the time they attempt suicide. ▪ This singleness of purpose may last only a short time. ▪ It can change to confusion the very next hour or day, and then return again in short order. o Death initiators also clearly intend to end their lives, but they act out of a belief that the process of death is already under way and that they are simply hastening the process. o Death ignorers do not believe that their self-inflicted death will mean the end of their existence. ▪ They believe they are trading their present lives for a better or happier existence. o Death darers experience mixed feelings, or ambivalence about their intent to die, even at the moment of their attempt, and they show this ambivalence in the act itself. - Subintentional deaths: a death in which the victim plays an indirect, hidden, partial, or unconscious role. - Self-injury or self-mutilation, has been added to the list of DSM - Nonsuicidal self-injury be studied for possible inclusion in future revisions of the DSM - Self-injurious behaviors are more common than previously recognized, particularly among teenagers and young adults, and it may be on the increase. How is Suicide Studied? - Retrospective analysis: a psychological autopsy in which clinicians piece together information about a person’s suicide from the person’s past. - Because of these limitations, many researchers also use a second strategy- studying people who survive their suicide attempt. o It is estimated that there are 12 nonfatal suicide attempts for every fatal suicide, Patterns and Statistics - Suicide happens within a larger social setting, and researchers have gathered many statistics regarding the social contexts in which such deaths take place. - Religious affiliation and beliefs may help account for these national differences. - Research is beginning to suggest that religious doctrine may not help prevent suicide, as much has the degree of an individual’s devoutness. - Three times as many women attempt suicide as men, yet men succeed at more than four times the rate of women. - Men tend to use more violent methods, such as shooting, stabbing, or hanging themselves, whereas women use less violent methods, such as drug overdose. - Suicide is also related to social environment and martial status. - Finally, the United States at least, suicide rates seem to vary according to race. - Studies show that factors such as alcohol use, modeling, and the availability of guns may also play a role. What Triggers a Suicide? - Common triggering factors include stressful events, mood and thought changes, alcohol and other drug use, mental disorders, and modeling. Stressful Events and Situations - Researchers have counted more stressful events in the recent lives of suicide attempters than in the lives nonattempters. Social Isolation - However, those without such social supports are particularly vulnerable to suicidal thinking and actions. Serious Illness - People who illnesses cause them great pain or severe disability may try to commit suicide, believing that death is unavoidable and imminent. Abusive or Repressive Environment - Victims of an abusive or repressive environment form which they have little or no hope of escape sometimes commit suicide. Occupational Stress - Some jobs create feelings of tension or dissatisfaction that may trigger suicide attempts. Mood and Thought Changes - Many suicide attempts are preceded by a change in mood. - The most common change is an increase in sadness. - Suicide attempts may also be preceded by shifts in patterns of thinking. - Helplessness: a pessimistic belief that one’s present circumstances, problems, or mood will not change. - Dichotomous thinking: viewing problems and solutions in rigid either/or terms. Alcohol and Other Drug Use - Studies indicate that as many as 70 percent of the people who attempt suicide drink alcohol just before they do so. - It may be that the use of alcohol lowers a person’s fear of committing suicide, releases underlying aggressive feelings, or impairs his or her judgment and problem-solving ability. Mental Disorders - The majority of all suicide attempters do have such a disorder. - Research suggests that as many as 70 percent of all suicide attempters have been experiencing severe depression, 20 percent chronic alcoholism, and 10 percent schizophrenia. - Severe depression also may play a key role in suicide attempts made by those with serious physical illness. - A number of the people who drink alcohol or use drugs just before a suicide attempt actually have a long history of abusing such substances. - Alternatively, a third factor- psychological pain, for instance, or depression- may cause both substance abuse and suicidal thinking. Modeling: The Contagion of Suicide - It is not unusual for people, particularly teenagers, to try to commit suicide after observing or reading about someone else who has done so. - Either way, one suicidal act apparently serves as a model for another. Family Members and Friends - A recent suicide by a family member or friend increases the likelihood that a person will attempt suicide. - This additional risk factor is often called the social contagion effect. Other Highly Publicized Cases - Suicides with bizarre or unusual aspects often receive intense coverage by the news media. - Some clinicians argue that more responsible reporting could reduce this frightening impact of highly published suicides. Coworkers and Colleagues - The word-of-mouth publicity that attends suicides in a school, workplace, or small community may trigger suicide attempts. What are the underlying causes of suicide? - Theorists have proposed more fundamental explanations for self-destructive actions than the immediate triggers considered in the previous section. The Psychodynamic View - Many psychodynamic theorists believe that suicid
More Less

Related notes for CLP 3140

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit