Fields become analysis- a chart that you might look at after it has been corrected to match
How does a microburst form? - due to extremely strong downdrafts
How does a wall cloud form- some of the rain in the nearby downdraft evaporates as it
descends and warms. Once it becomes a gas again, some of this colder air gets ingested into
the strong rotating updraft, condensing very quickly near the surface. This is why the wall clouds
seems to “lower” and continues to rotate.
Tornadoes form when that vertical tube of rotation stretches all the way down to the surface
Flash floods- a car is the worst place to be
IC Lightning- in cloud lightning
-Between cloud, within clouds, or cloud to air
CG- cloud to ground lightning
-This is the most dangerous kind
-Consists of cloud to cloud surface with cloud overhead or a “bolt from the blue”... clear skies
● Due to charge buildup within storm
-Three different layers creates charge separation
-Heavier particles carry negative charge, lighter particles carry positive charge
● Majority of flashes stay within clouds
Stepped leader is branching down, looking for positive charge
Return stroke is when the positive charge flows u to the bottom of the cloud
Track forecasting errors- we have gotten better at knowing where the hurricane is going to go
but we still can’t tell the intensity of a hurricane
Upper level disturnabcen will create a “kimk” in the surface flow
This slows down on the eastern side and speeds up winds on the western side
-Converging air must rise, forming clouds
Vertical and Horizontal Structure
Horizontal- know eye, eyewall, rainbands
-Which area has calm conditions?
-Which area has strongest winds?
Vertical- counterclockwise flow near the surface and clockwise flow aloft Northeast Quadrant Strongest Winds
● Most hurricane in the northeast quadrant because as hurricanes approach to U.S.
coastline, they are moving northward
● The northwest sector is where the counterclockwise circular motion and northward storm
● This creates an “additive” effect that strengthens the maximum wind speed
Besides its rotating updraft, what are three other features of a supercell?
Has an overshooting top, maintains itself for several hours, produces hail and/or tornadoes, and
strong vertical wind shear
Which variable is typically observed at each of the following pressure levels?
300 mb-jet stream (narrow band of high wind speed just below the tropopause)
500 mb- trough/ridge pattern (generally look at the pattern to see if we have a cold air of through
going down to the surface)