HIST 1400 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Mexican Liberal Party, Mexican Miracle, Indigenismo

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Published on 14 Jun 2017
School
Fordham University
Department
History
Course
HIST 1400
Professor
16/10/17
Augusto Sandino (1895-1934)
Nicaraguan of peasant origin.
1920s & 30s - insurgency against US Marines
“Raza Indo - Hispana” (Indo-Hispanic Race)
Mobilized support throughout Latin America
US places Anastacio Somoza in power —executes Sandino.
Later inspire Sandinistas (1961-)
After World War II
Democratization sweeps through Latin America
1944-46: Social Democracy spreads
-Only 5 countries not operating under constitutional rule
Political & Economic Rights extended to larger part of society
Inspired by FDR’s “Four Freedoms” Speech (Speech/ Worship/
from want/ from fear)
But SHIFT by 1947.
Phase 4: Cold war, 1946-80s
1947-48: Only 5 countries Can be considered democratic
1947: CIA founded
Containing Soviet influence
From support of democracy—> support of stability
Phase 5: Neoliberalism, 1980s~
1980s Debt Crisis in LA
-Invites IMF (Int’l Monetary Fund) intervention
“Third Conquest”
Lower Tariffs, Bank Deregulation
Example: NAFTA (N.American Free Trade Agreement)
!1
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16/10/17
Significance of Mexican Revolution
First modern social revolution of 20th century
Far-reaching,
-From countryside —> urban areas,
-cuts across ethnic and class lines
Lasting repercussions and legacies:
-1917 Constitution
-Create PRI (Revolutionary Institutional Party)
-Revolutionary Nationalism (Indigenismo)
-Land Reform
Causes of the Mexican Revolution
Multiple causes — social, political, economic
-Limits of 19th century liberalism
-Indigenous people lose lands to latifundia
Peasants: object to expropriation (land seizure & forced removal)
-1900: Over 77% of population in countryside
-Originally election-related —try to prevent Porfirio Díaz from
stealing another election
Periodizing the Revolution
Began1910 with challenge to Porfirio Díaz
But when did it end?
-1917 Constitution
-1940 — End of Cárdenas presidency
-1968 — End of Mexican miracle; Massacre of Tlatelolco Square
Background to the Revolution
19th century Political Instability
La Reforma 1855-58
Civil War 1858-60
French Invasion 1862-67
Benito Juarez: —> Liberal President 1867; Conservatives Crushed
Liberals finally consolidate modern state
!2
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Document Summary

Augusto sandino (1895-1934: nicaraguan of peasant origin, 1920s & 30s - insurgency against us marines. Raza indo - hispana (indo-hispanic race: mobilized support throughout latin america, us places anastacio somoza in power executes sandino, later inspire sandinistas (1961-) After world war ii: democratization sweeps through latin america, 1944-46: social democracy spreads. Only 5 countries not operating under constitutional rule: political & economic rights extended to larger part of society, inspired by fdr"s four freedoms speech (speech/ worship/ from want/ from fear, but shift by 1947. Phase 4: cold war, 1946-80s: 1947-48: only 5 countries can be considered democratic, 1947: cia founded, containing soviet in uence, from support of democracy > support of stability. Phase 5: neoliberalism, 1980s: 1980s debt crisis in la. Invites imf (int"l monetary fund) intervention: third conquest , lower tariffs, bank deregulation, example: nafta (n. american free trade agreement) Signi cance of mexican revolution: first modern social revolution of 20th century, far-reaching,

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