PSYCH 104 Lecture Notes - Lecture 32: Social Comparison Theory, Small Appliance, Psych
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● Operant Conditioning (reinforcement)
○ Predicated on the fact that we can be reinforced or punished and this will affect
what our attitudes are in the future.
■ If someone reinforces me for having an attitudinal position, we are more
likely to have that attitude position again.
● “Spring Fling” Experiment: really subtle, whenever someone said
something positive on the phone before the fair about the fair, they
got “good, good”, and in the control group, if they said anything
positive about it, they just got “uh, huh”. After the fair, the people
who got “good, good” enjoyed it more they said than the other
people. The people who were rewarded for having a positive
attitude, kept that positive attitude.
■ Flattery works!
● Social Learning (observation)
○ Rather than you yourself being rewarded for an attitudinal position or being
punished for your attitudinal position, you can observe other people being
punished or rewarded and you can learn from that.
■ vs. Social Comparison Theory: SCT is because you don’t know how to
behave or are unsure about how you feel about something, you’re
motivated to compare with other people and therefore what they’re doing
can affect what you do and what they’re feeling can affect what you’re
■ Social Learning is watching how others are rewarded or punished for their
2. Cognitive Motivation/Balance- we like to, psychologically, have things in harmony,
have things be equal; our attitude and our behavior should be aligned together.
a. cognitive dissonance
i. If you get into disharmony, and your attitude and behavior are disaligned,
we are motivated to return to harmony. We are motivated to change our
behavior or change our attitude to be in alignment with the other person.
● Doom’s Day people went around the world selling their belongings
and warning people in preparation for the world to end. When the
world didn’t end, they said it was because of their praying and
warning people! They needed to maintain balance between their
behavior and their attitude. They didn’t want cognitive dissonance.
● You sign up for a study on motor skills, you’re led to a table that
has three boxes on it. One box full of nuts and bolts, and you’re
told they’re interested in motor skills and you need to organize the
nuts and bolts. Then they ask the person if they can go in the
waiting room and tell them to tell the people in the waiting room
how exciting it was, and if they do that some people will be paid 1