PSYC 1001 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Rorschach Test, Twin Study, Conscientiousness

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8 Feb 2017
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4/4/2016 and 4/6/2016
Week 12
Monday April 4, 2016; Class 21
Theories of Personality
Review Questions
In order for a personality inventory to be accurate, it must be reliable, valid, and standardized.
The Rorschach Inkblot Test and the Human Figure Drawings are both projective personality tests.
Projective techniques are projective because subjects reveal information about themselves.
Chapter 14
Personality a distinctive pattern of behavior, mannerisms, thoughts, motives, and emotions that
characterizes an individual both over time and across situations.
Factors that Influence Personality Culture, media, parents (nature vs nurture?)
Traits Characteristics of an individual that describe habitual ways of behaving, thinking, and feelings.
Shy, outgoing, hostile, gloomy, etc.
Core Personality Traits
Hundreds of studies support the existence of a cluster of five central traits (the Big Five):
1. Extroversion vs Introversion
2. Neuroticism vs Emotional Stability
3. Agreeableness vs Antagonism
Agreeableness team player, willing to compromise reasonably, willing to work in
groups
Antagonism refusal to work with others
4. Conscientiousness vs Impulsiveness
Conscientiousness planning ahead, following a plan to completion, willing to accept
challenges, work ethic
5. Openness to experiences vs Resistance to new experience
Factor Analysis a method that identifies clusters of correlated items that seem to be measuring some
common, underlying factor
Genetic Influences on Personality
Researchers measure genetic contributions in to personality in 3 ways:
1. Studying personality traits in other species
Evidence of Big Five in 64 different species → point to evolutionary importance of Big
Five and their biological basis
2. Studying the temperaments of human infants and children
3. Doing heritability tests
Temperaments the psychological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways
Present in infants, even in the few weeks after birth
Assumed to be innate
Findings from adoption and twin studies have provided compelling support for a genetic contribution to
personality.
Behavioral-genetic findings show that heritability for the Big Five and for many other traits is about 50%
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