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Lecture 1

CJ ST 484 Lecture 1: CJ ST 484 notes

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Criminal Justice Studies
CJ ST 484

CJ ST 484 notes 1/12/2017 12:52:00 AM What are the essential counseling process basics that a therapist of correctional counselor needs to poses and why (there are four of them) How do the classical conditioning and operant conditioning models of behavior changer differ from one another and what are some of the key components of each model? Page 69 Please explain the difference between static risk assessments and dynamic risk assessment please provide examples of static and dynamic risk factors in your explanation • Static risk assessment: black or white, objective, don’t not change over time • Dynamic Risk Assessment: can change over time, • What is the difference between static and dynamic assessments o Static only needs to be tested once because it doesn’t change o Dynamic may need to be tested multiple times • Cognitions o Low and high risk are predictable o Low mod and moderate are the ones that can be restored Please identify and explain the key elements of classification and assessment is identified by Travis and Latesa (there are 10 of them) Distinguish between the risk principle and the needs principle and the responsitivity principle. Please describe how is each important to correctional treatment efforts. • Risk Principle: • Needs principle: • Responsitivity principle: o General: Large scale, specific population o Specific: non-criminogenic needs that are specific to the individual What does it mean to be a correctional counselor? • Problem solving o Take larger problems and break it down into smaller roles to be easier to manage • Be efficient in work, time management o Multitasking • Patience o In and out of the profession ▪ At work and at home with the family • Critical thinking o Work through problems even if theyre not always the way you think • Emotional distance Utilize a process • Communication and timing – pg 8-10 o Body language and style of communication o Know when to talk to someone about a particular issue • Effective risking pg. 11 o Developing communication and relationship • Therapeutic intention and outcome pg 12 • Professional humility – pg 13-14 o Listening to understand Diagnosis and assessment of criminal offenders • Offender classification and assessment o Distinctions among criminals are made based on ▪ The type of crime they commmited (ex. violent or property) ▪ The degree that the offender appeared to be involved in crime (ex. first time or habitual offender) objective ▪ Subjective characteristics (ex. attitude, personality, age social class, ethnicity) o Actuarial assessment tools are offender classification and assessment instruments: ▪ Based on standardized, objective criteria ▪ Used to distinguish among the criminal population ▪ Used to determine appropriate treatment and punishment modalities ▪ Assessments are used to assess behaviors, attitudes, thoughts, emotions, etc. ▪ Types of assessments:  Static assessments: measured factors are set and do not change much over time (criminal history, age predictable, maritalpredictable process in and out,  Dynamic assessments: measured factors change more dynamically (ex. getting a job, substance abuse, o Most popular types of assessments ▪ Level of Services Inventory Revised (LSI-R) – criminal behaviors ▪ Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR) – mental health disorders – categorizes disorders that need specialized treatment among other classifications  Categorizes disorders by Axis (Axis 1 = Clinical disorders and Axis 2 = personality disorders and mental competence o Common assessed disorders ▪ Mood disorders: affects the mood (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and manic disorder ▪ Psychotic disorder: affects how a person perceives reality and impairs their reality (schizophrenia) ▪ Personality disorders: affects how a person perceives events, relates to those events, and deals with stress from the resulting conflict (histrionic personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder) o Substance abuse assessment ▪ Substance dependent  A person is substance dependant if they continue to use a substance in spite of significant problems related to its use, has developed a tolerance to it, needs more of the substance to achieve the desired affect, being unable to cut down on use, has physical and mental withdrawal symptoms, the use prefers to put themselves in situations where they can use the substance ▪ Substance abuse:  Use of substances in dangerous situations and continue to use the substance in spite of persistent problems caused by such use and has repeated legal and/or personal problems as a result of use o Assessment process ▪ Usually takes 1.5 to 3 hours ▪ A referral is made and an appointment is scheduled: ▪ Interview with the client occurs (specific questions are asked); ▪ Testing may occur (intelligence tests, personality tests, and cognitive targeting tests). ▪ A subsequent appointment is set and the assessment is scored after the initial appointment ▪ At the subsequent appointment – the results are shared with the client. A plan is also developed in this appointment which will be revisited every six months with sequent assessments and goal building plans • Key elements of classification and assessment o Travis and latessa identified 10 key elements ▪ Purpose: ensure that offenders are treated differentially within a system insure safety and treatment appropriateness ▪ Organizational fit: fit the characteristics and needs of the particular organization and agency, such as pretrial, probation, parole, etc. ▪ Accuracy: be reliable and valid in making correctional predictions ▪ Parsimony: be easy to use, short, and simple  Written at the highest of a 3 rdgrade level ▪ Distribution: predict across classification groups, such as gender, race, offense type, etc.  Written in different languages ▪ Dynamism: include risk factors that are amenable to change and allow for the measurement of change (improvement or rehab) in the offender for reclassification ▪ Utility: achieve the purpose of offender classification and meet the goals of the agency ▪ Practicality: be practical and easy to implement in the field  Any locations (ex. shelter, under bridges, random apartment complex)  Also electronic and paper based ▪ Justice: produce just outcomes where offender placement and service provisions are based on offender differences and yield consistent outcomes ▪ Sensitivity: effective classification and assessment is sensitive to the differences of offenders o • Offender classification o Takes a diverse group of people who have been arrested for a criminal offense and distills them down into subgroups based on criminogenic risks, needs and responsivity factors o Assists in making decisions about and allocating resourses in an equitable manner based on clients risk levels and community safety o The R-N-R model consists of three areas: ▪ Risk (the risk principle) ▪ Needs (the Needs principle) ▪ Responsitivity (the Responsivity principle) o Always start with Responsivity • The risk principle o Used to deploy resources to keep the community safe ▪ More resources are spent on high and medium risk clients; ▪ Fewer resources are spent on low risk clients; ▪ Low risk clients assigned to intensive correctional treatment environments, makes them worse (more likely to be reareested); ▪ Whenever possible avoid assigning low-risk clients to institutional placements or intensive treatment interventions that expose them to criminogenic influences o An old risk assessment: salient factor score ▪ Used by the bureau of prisions in the 1970s – a first generation risk assessment ▪ Predicted adjustment within the prison walls – was used for parole decisions but was not validated on the population reentering the community ▪ Salient factor score factors (Hoffman, 1994) ▪ Prior convictions, prior commitments >30 days, age at current offense, commitments during past three years, correctional escape, heroin/opiate dependence • The Needs principle o Answer the question: ▪ Which needs are associated with this client’s criminal behavior? The needs identified are called Criminogenic Needs. ▪ The needs principle assists case managers in targeting and giving high priority to the drivers of criminal behavior for a specific client ▪ Needs related to future offending (Criminogenic Needs) are a high priority as we match clients to programs to address these criminogenic needs ▪ The strongest criminogenic needs include: antisocial attitudes, antisocial peers, and antisocial personality (Andrews and Bonta, 2010) o Needs assessments provide: ▪ Systemactic and objective identification of client needs; ▪ Information needed to link clients to services that promote behavioral change and prevent physical, psychological, or social deterioration ▪ A toold for individutalized case planning; and ▪ Information needed to allocate agency and programming resources; ▪ Are essential to client reentry programs ▪ What a correctional counselor does with the output from a risk/needs assessment is just as or likely more important than the assessment itself ▪ o Modern risk/needs assessment – LSI – R ▪ A third generation assessment ▪ LSI – R: assessed factors  Criminal history  Criminal peers  Criminal attitudes  Education/employment  Family/marital  Alcohol/drug  Leisure/recreation  Financial  Accommodations  Mental health • Responsivity principle o Correctional treatment programs should accommodate client characteristics and situations that are likely to become barriers to success in a given correctional program o Responsivity factors must be addressed to ensure a correctional counselor get an opportunity to address criminogenic needs o Example on pg 137 o o General Responsivity: Large scale approaches that have evidence showing they are effective with a specific population. For example, the offender population and the use of cognitive behavioral therapy o Specific Responsivity: Non-criminogenic needs that are specific to the individual client that may hinder their response to the treatment intervention or targeted criminogenic need • Assessment Validity o Validity: to be valid, the assessment is measuring what it promises to measure o R-N-R assessments promise to measure recidivism by risk category • Assessment Reliablity o To be reliable, multiple tests of the same individual, at the same time, must yield the same results o To measure this, 50 cases are randomly selected each year and are assessed twice (by different correctional counselors Exam 2 1/12/2017 12:52:00 AM Identify components of the social learning process and explain each component (there are 3 components)? Explain the difference between a cognitive restructuring program and a cognitive skills program? How could family therapy be useful with incarcerated offenders and their family’s? • Multisystemic o Dynamic process o Voluntary engagement • Kids with incarcerated parents Please list and describe the sex offender assessment components (there are four of them). How do these differ from traditional risk assessment components which are not sex offender specific? From what you have learned about the treatment relationship between the client and the correctional counselor, what characteristics of a client with antisocial personality disorder would make effective treatment difficult to attain and why? 3/1/2017 Social learning models ( Albert Bandura – 1977) (chapter 8) • Social learning models when combined with cognitive behavioral models are amoung the most effective treatment approaches in changing behavior • Have achieved up to 20 to 30 percent reductions in revidvism amoung the criminal population • Deterrence models are rooted in this prespective: we will not engage in a behavior because we see how others are punished Prerequisites to social and cognitive learning models • Certain resposnsivity factors must be addressed before implementing the social and cognitive learning strategies • Ex. mental health, child care, transportation, negative stereotypes of teachers/authority, etc • Any time of attitudinal, intellectual, neurological, physical, or mental handicaps must first be addressed to ensure attentiveness Social learning process • 1) observational learning – learning through observing and imitating others and their behaviors o our observation of others facilitates our own learning in several ways ▪ demonstrating how to perform a new behavior – provides invaluable assistance to the acquisition of new techniques and skills; ▪ prompting us or showing us how to use the behavior at the appropriate times; ▪ motivation us, or increasing our desire to use a new skill or behavior; ▪ disinhibiting us – modeled behavior reduces anxiety and rear about using new behaviors o Barriers to effective observational learning ▪ Parents and family members who model behaviors that oppose those that we are trying to teach; ▪ Institutional staff who are not trained to reinforce or serve as models for the goal behaviors or those who have negative orientations and at times model antisocial attitudes; ▪ Peers who encourage clients to engage in criminal behavior • 2) role models and modeling – provides a means to observe and imitate behaviors o Role models ▪ only certain individuals function as effective role models and possess the following qualities ▪ 1)attractiveness – skilled at interpersonal relationships, open and warm , enthusiastic, flexible, and understands the viewpoints of others ▪ 2)competence – consistently addressing behaviors that are unacceptable in a firm but fair approach, delivery of clear and concise distinctions between prosocial and antisocial behaviors ▪ 3)extent to which the role model is rewarded – reinforce conduct through praise, recognition in front of others, tied rewards to internal and external motivators ▪ the genuineness of the interaction and connection matters to establish a relationship and legitimacy with the client o Modeling Behaviors – the correctional Counselor ▪ 1)Recognize criminal thinking patterns (criminal thinking errors); ▪ 2)correct and discus negative attitudes ▪ 3)do not let minor breaking behaviors slide in an effort to be “liked”; ▪ 4)be attentive to your own anti-social behaviors (subtle clues that clients pick up on) and manage those accordingly; ▪ 5)Don’t attempt to “con talk” to become close to client; ▪ 6)model anti-criminal expressions:  emphasize the negative consequences of criminal behavior;  reject criminal cognitions and take corrective action:  identify the risks of association with negative peers and accepting their belief system ▪ 7)encourage association with prosocial others; ▪ 8)encourage clients to avoid high risk situations; ▪ 9)model good self-management skils: thinking before acting, thinking about the consequences of the conduct, setting realist standards for oneself, and working on avoidance ▪ 10)insist on regular attendance and the completion of the treatment plan assignments; ▪ 11)focus on criminogenic needs and behaviors that lead to recidivism; ▪ 12)reinforce anti-criminal expressions – i.e. positive relationships, positive work habits, etc. ▪ The goal is not to be “liked” but to be “respected” ▪ Must not strive to be “popular” but to be “firm, fiar and consistent” • 3) goal behaviors – behaviors that the therapy is designed to teach and targeted outcomes that con be measured o these are behaviors that when used can produce a different outcome i.e. prosocial = prosocial outcomes o example: avoid criminal peers, obtain employment, attend parent/teacher conferences, etc. o must be specific to the client; o must break down complicated goal behaviors into small manageable components; o must be clear and concise (targeting only on goal); o must be a goal behavior for the client to practice the desired goal behavior; o use of new goal behaviors must be consistently reinforced to encourage continued use. o Practicing the goal behaviors ▪ Behavioral rehearsal or practice is essential to the learning process; ▪ Rehearsal can occur mentally (in a clients mind) through visualization, physically (acting out the behavior in a role play), and through group demonstration (modeling the behavior in front of a group) in a group treatment setting ▪ Guided accurate feedback from the client (visualization), the counselor (role play), and the group (group demonstration) is critical for the client. This process operationalizes the practice and creates an accountability process that they can use to develop the goal behavior ▪ A clients rehearsal of the goal behavior must be accompanied with both internal and external reinforcement provided by the client themselves, the correctional counselor, and if applicable the group o Snowball process of learned behaviors ▪ Reinforcement comes in many different forms – however – the most powerful types are internal ▪ As goal behaviors are rehearsed and are then implemented in a clients life in real circumstances, the client receives a tremendous amount of gratification from this ▪ Ex. avoiding a high risk situation, person, or place and sharing that with the correctional counselor and if applicable modeling and teaching others ▪ Similar to learning a new skill in athletics, or assertiveness, or leadership, or study habits Correctional Treatment – Theory and Models of Rehabilitation (Chapter 9) • Cognitive Therapies o Focuses on affecting the ways clients think and process information to achieve different behavioral outcomes o A clients cognitive thought process is rooted in their attitudes, values, and beliefs. They will employ these cognitive patterns across different situations o Among chronic criminal offenders – thinking errors, antisocial moral values, antisocial attitudes, and limited problem solving skills dominate decisions they make on a daily basisi o Cognitive therapies among the criminal offender population targets these styles of thinking errors and tries to correct them o Generally, these therapies are delivered via one-on-one counseling with a counselor, case manager, probation officer, parole officer, etc. ▪ Usually with high risk clients o These therapies are also delivered via a group setting o The goal is to challenge the client to develop more prosocial and functional types of thought processes that can be employed in their everyday lives o Remember – thinking generates behavior • Two types of outcome goals in cognitive therapies o 1)Cognitive restructuring ▪ Interventions focus on changing cognitive content, beliefs, values and attitudes ▪ Changes and brings to light criminal thinking errors ▪ Cognitive restructuring: rational emotive therapy  Ellis (1973) – is th foundation of cognitive restructuring  Focuses on cognitive restructuring and how our emotions and thoughts affect our decisions about behavior through irrational beliefs and ratinoal beliefs  Irrational beliefs (self talk) – decreases happiness and maximizes pain. These are distorted interpretations of an event  Rational beliefs (self talk) – increase positive feels and minimize pain. They are accurately related to the event  Clients are taught to substitute rational beliefs for irrational beliefs and to constantly challenge events that occur where they engages in the use of irrational belifs • Examples o Worse case senarios o All or nothing (black or white) o Overgeneralization(one negative experience shades the perons whole life) o Dwelling on the negative o Magnification (inflation of the importance of an event) o Jumping to conclusions ▪ Criminal thinking errors  See examples of thinking errors on pg 189  o 2)Cognitive skills ▪ interventions focus on the development or improvement of cognitive processes ▪ develops new ways of how we think by changing our structure of reasoning ▪ ▪ Teaches skills to clients to change the content of a clients reasoning ▪ Focuses on changing the process of thinking and how thoughts are formulated, not the content ▪ Focuses on cognitions as a learned process, appropriate cognitive processes must be reinforced to be repeated, these cognitive processes must be practices through role-play ▪ Focuses on improving the processes used to think through and act on a problem in non-criminal ways ▪ Example on pg 194 ▪ Problem - - thoughts and feelings – behavior – consequences ▪ Goal is to teach: problem solving skills, self control, formulating short and long-term plans/goals, avoiding high risk situations anticipating consequences, decision making, effective coping, flexible thinking strategies ▪ ▪ Counselors will in either group or individual sessions challenge the client to:  See the viewpoints of others through articulation  Discuss and demonstrate how they will control feelings of anger and hostility  Practice asserting their position in a calm, non- violent manner  Examine thought patterns in high risk, situations  Stopping irrational thoughts developing short and long term goals  Positive self-talk o Gender responsive strategies ▪ Guiding principle 1 (gender): acknowledge that gender makes a difference ▪ Guiding principle 2 (environment): create an environment based on safety, respect, and dignity  ▪ Guiding principle 3 (relationship): develop policies, practices, and programs that are relational and promote healthy connections to children, family, significant others, and the community ▪ Guiding Principle 4 (services and supervision): address substance abuse, trauma, and mental health issues through comprehensive, integrated, and culturally
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