Types of managerial decisions: programmed vs non-programmed decisions. People in organisations make decisions under each three decision conditions: certain environments. Offer complete information on possible action alternatives and their consequences: risk environment. Lacks complete information, but offers "probabilities" of the likely outcomes for possible action alternatives: uncertain environment. Lacks so much information that it is difficult to assign probabilities to the likely outcomes of alternatives. An authority decision: a decision made by the leader and then communicated to the group. A consultative decision: a decision made by a leader after receiving information, advice or opinions from group members. A group decision a decision made with the full participation of all group members. An ethical dilemma arises when action must be taken but there is no clear "ethically right" option. The burden is on the individual to make good choices. Source of ethical dilemmas include: discrimination, sexual harassment, conflicts of interest, customer confidence, organisation resources.