ART 101 Lecture 7: Greek architecture

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22 Oct 2016
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Greek Architecture #7
October 5-17
Greek Architecture 600-400 BCE
Characteristics
-characteristic architectural type is the temple
not tombs
-purpose was to house the statue of the deity to whom the temple was dedicated
-worship took place outside the temple
involved a burnt offering of an animal (a lamb, goat, etc.)
alters were outside surrounded by a fire wall made of stone
-temples were accompanied by other buildings including treasuries
small square rectangular buildings where people would make offerings of silver or
gold
-worship of god and goddess involved other rituals and in particular many different arts
theater
poetry
dancing & singing
-theaters were built into the hillside and were part of temple complexes
people would sit very close together
cathartic performances
performed in cycles of 48 hours
-thriving centers of culture that attracted people at all different times
-females served as priestesses of temples dedicated to female deities and male
priests for male deities
-earliest greek temples were made out of mud brick and wood and do not survive, we
only have descriptions of them
-through contact with Egypt, stone architecture is introduce to Greece
-rectangular rooms with a cella, surrounded with columns
-Greeks believe temples should reflect principles
mathematics
!1
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Greek Architecture #7
-each major region of Greece had their own distinct architectural style
-three major orders:
orders are a series of proportions
most architecture in the west is based on Greek Architecture
1) Doric order
associated with Athens
Attica
colonies
well spread order
temples approached by a series of steps: stereobate
stylobate: the column level
column is described as a body
wider at the bottom/base with a tapering shaft
tappers to express the weight of what it holds on top
the swelling of the column is called the entasis
tappers towards a neck with a capital (head) on top
transition from the shaft and the neck and everything above it is accomplished by a
pillar shaped abacus
built on a number of drums
individual slices of marble
on top is an entablature
flat area called an architrave and a frieze of alternating triglyph and metope
acroterion: animal sculpture that water would come out of
2) Ionic order
associated with the Greek Islands
-it was in the 19th century that the terms we use came into being
-classical, late classical, archaic etc.
-the parthenon represented this peak of perfection that was reached around the year
448 BCE-432 BCE
!2
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Greek Architecture #7
for them the parthenon represented this shinning ideal
optical adjustments
tapering enthuses in the columns
highly idealized figures
contrapossto
symbolizes the resurrection of Athens from the devastation of the Persian
invasions
every one came from all over to look at this temple
that is when the spartans said “are you kidding” and declared war, 441 BCE -
404 BCE
horrific: greek city states fought against each other, primarily, spartans against
Athens
for many people, archaeologists, this is when the classical style ended
Athens won sometimes, but lost so much, massive famine, out breaks of the
plague, a time of devastation
Sanctuary of Apollo, 6th-3rd c. BCE, Delphi
-pythian games: similar to the Olympian games, attracted participants from all over
Greece
-athletic contests and music, dance and poetry competitions in honor of Apollo
-hundreds of statues dedicated to the victors and of mythological figures filled the
sanctuary grounds
-Sanctuary was significantly developed during Archaic period and included the main
temple, performance and athletic areas, treasuries and other buildings and
monuments
!3
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