PHYS 130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Circular Reasoning, Injustice 2, Evil Demon

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9 Aug 2016
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Introduction to Philosophy
Exam #2 Study Guide
1. Present, Explain, and Evaluate Russell’s Appearance vs. Reality Argument
a. Present:
a.i. Real properties of an object are stable but the more properties we perceive
change
a.ii. If (a) then the properties, we perceive are not real properties of objects
a.iii. If the properties, we perceive are not real properties of objects then our
beliefs about objects require inferences from the sense data we directly
perceive
a.iv. Therefore, our belief about objects require inferences from the series of
data we directly perceive
b. Explain:
b.i. The table does not always look like a rectangle
c. Evaluate:
c.i.1. Valid argument
c.i.2. Sound argument
2. Present, Explain, and Evaluate Descartes’ Argument for Doubt based on Sense
Perception.
a. Present:
a.i. Argument for doubt based on sense perception
a.i.1. My senses have deceived me in the past
a.i.2. If (1) then I have reason to doubt all the beliefs that come
from my senses
a.i.3. Therefore, I have reason to doubt all of the beliefs that come
from my senses
a.ii. Decart believes (ii) is false
a.ii.1. You cannot doubt that you are staring at your hand
a.ii.2. Less than optimal conditions do not give good enough reason
to doubt rite here right now,
a.ii.2.a. we cannot doubt that the table is a table just because the
lighting in the room is dim.
b. Explain
b.i. This theory states that just because your senses have deceived you in the
past (i.e. mistaking a cleverly disguised sheep for a zebra) does not
necessarily mean that they will deceive you in the future
c. Evaluate
c.i. This is a valid argument because if all the premises are true that means
that the conclusion is true
c.ii. The argument is in the format of modus peons
c.iii. The argument is not sound as Decart argues because of the fault in the
second premise of the argument
3. Present, Explain, and Evaluate Descartes’ Argument for Doubt based on Dreaming.
a. Present
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a.i. Argument for doubt based on dreaming
a.i.1. There are no indications by which we may distinguish
wakefulness from sleep
a.i.1.a. There are no means by which you can distinguish
between dreams and reality
a.i.2. If (1) then I don’t know that I am not now dreaming
a.i.3. If I don’t know that I am not now dreaming, then I have
reason to doubt all beliefs that come from my senses
a.i.4. Therefore, I have reason to doubt all the beliefs that come
from my senses
a.i.4.a. We know we wake from occasion and that we have
been awake and that we have been asleep
b. Explain:
b.i. This argument basically states that we can never know for sure if we are in
fact dreaming or if we are awake therefore everything that we gather from
our senses cannot be trusted because there is always the possibility that
they were not derived in reality but rather in an alternate dream reality.
c. Evaluate:
c.i. This argument is valid because if all the premise is true then the
conclusion must be true
c.ii. This argument is not sound because in actuality there is a difference in
reality between
4. Present, Explain, and Evaluate Descartes’ Argument for Doubt based on the Evil Demon.
a. Present:
a.i. Descarts argument for doubts based on the evil demon
a.i.1. I don’t know that I am not being deceived by an evil demon
a.i.2. If (i) then I have reason to doubt all the beliefs that come from
my senses
a.i.3. Therefore, I have reason to doubt all the beliefs that come
from my senses
a.ii. We must exist however because in order to be deceived by the demon we
must exist
b. Explain:
b.i. We can never be certain that our entire existence and beliefs are being
deceived by a demon, for all we know 2+2 is actually 5 and we may
actually be deceived into believing that it is 4 by a demon
c. Evaluate:
c.i. This is a valid argument
c.ii. This argument is in modus poens
c.iii. This argument is sound because there is no evidence that we can have that
suggests or gives us concrete proof we are not being deceived by a demon.
The only thing that we can in actuality know for sure is that in some form
we ourselves exist however the existence of others is not a guaranteed
reality.
5. Present, Explain, and Evaluate Hume’s Problem of Induction Argument.
a. Present:
a.i. Hume Principle: we can only have A priori knowledge of a statement if it
is a relation of ideas or analytic
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