Class Notes (837,548)
United States (325,103)
BIOL 1002 (19)
L.Paul (4)
Lecture 10

BIOL 1002 Lecture 10: Notes 34-35

3 Pages
62 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOL 1002
Professor
L.Paul
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 34 Respiratory System - cellular respiration converts energy in nutrients into the ATP that supplies cellular energy, requires O2 and generates CO2 - organismal respiration- the process of exchange of gases with the environment - diffusion- to acquire O2 and eliminate CO2 - respiratory surfaces remain moist because cellular membranes are moist and only gases dissolved in water can diffuse through cellular membrane - in a thin area - large surface area to allow enough gas exchange by diffusion, high concentration to low concentration - to maintain these gradients the air or water must flow past its respiratory surface 1. bulk flow- breathing forces air carrying O2 and CO2 into and out the lungs diffusion- O2 and CO2 are exchanged between alveoli and lung capillaries 2. 3. bulk flow- blood carrying O2 and CO2 flows though out the body via the circulatory system - conducting portion- happens in the series of passageways that carry air and structures - gas exchange- happens in the alveoli - mouth—>pharynx—>epiglottis—>larynx—>trachea—>bronchi—>bronchioles—>alveoli - diaphragm- exhaling relaxes and pushes up, inhaling contracts and pushes downward, the ribs and intercostal muscles also contract - within the larynx are the vocal cords, bands of elastic tissues controlled by muscles, stretching the cords changes the pitch and tones - trachea- a flexible tube whose walls are reinforces with semicircular bands of stiff cartilage - trachea splits into 2 large braces called bronchi - during its passage air is warmed and moistened - most of the dust and bacteria is trapped in cilli, hair, and mucous - aveoli- the two lungs combined have around 300 million, appearance looks like a bundle of grapes - surfactant- detergent like substance of proteins and lipids prevents alveoli from sticking together and collapsing during exhalation - gasses diffuse through respiratory membrane and alveoli wall - the respiratory center which is located in the medulla a portion of brain just above the spinal cord - the respiratory center receives input from several sources and adjusts breathing rate - respiratory rate is regulated by CO2 receptors on the medulla, these adjust the breathing rate to maintain low CO2 in blood and adequate O2 levels - blood transports CO2- 10% dissolved in plasma, 20% bound to hemoglobin, 70% combines with water to form bicarbonate ions HCO3 in the following reaction CO2+H2O—>H+HCO3 Chapter 35 Digestive System - Nutrients- carbs, lipids, proteins, minerals, vitamins, H2O - BMI- an imprecise but common tool for estimating a healthy weight based on heigh and weight but doesn't distinguish between muscles and built - average BMI 18.5-24.9 - in US 35% of all adults are overweight and additional 35% are obese - our cells can synthesize most of the molecules our bodies require but they cant synthesize certain raw materials called essential nutrients which must be supplied - ex. certain fatty acids, amino acids variety of minerals and vitamins, and H2O - protein deficiency can result in a kwashiorkor which occurs mostly in poor countries - below know: potassium, sodium iron, zinc, iodine - water soluble vitamins consist of vitamin C and B complex, these vitamins often come out of urine if excess is in the body - fat soluble vitamins consist of Vitamins A, D, E, K - polegra- B complex vitamin deficie
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 1002

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit