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Lecture 10

BIOL 1002 Lecture 10: Notes 34-35

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1002

Chapter 34 Respiratory System - cellular respiration converts energy in nutrients into the ATP that supplies cellular energy, requires O2 and generates CO2 - organismal respiration- the process of exchange of gases with the environment - diffusion- to acquire O2 and eliminate CO2 - respiratory surfaces remain moist because cellular membranes are moist and only gases dissolved in water can diffuse through cellular membrane - in a thin area - large surface area to allow enough gas exchange by diffusion, high concentration to low concentration - to maintain these gradients the air or water must flow past its respiratory surface 1. bulk flow- breathing forces air carrying O2 and CO2 into and out the lungs diffusion- O2 and CO2 are exchanged between alveoli and lung capillaries 2. 3. bulk flow- blood carrying O2 and CO2 flows though out the body via the circulatory system - conducting portion- happens in the series of passageways that carry air and structures - gas exchange- happens in the alveoli - mouth—>pharynx—>epiglottis—>larynx—>trachea—>bronchi—>bronchioles—>alveoli - diaphragm- exhaling relaxes and pushes up, inhaling contracts and pushes downward, the ribs and intercostal muscles also contract - within the larynx are the vocal cords, bands of elastic tissues controlled by muscles, stretching the cords changes the pitch and tones - trachea- a flexible tube whose walls are reinforces with semicircular bands of stiff cartilage - trachea splits into 2 large braces called bronchi - during its passage air is warmed and moistened - most of the dust and bacteria is trapped in cilli, hair, and mucous - aveoli- the two lungs combined have around 300 million, appearance looks like a bundle of grapes - surfactant- detergent like substance of proteins and lipids prevents alveoli from sticking together and collapsing during exhalation - gasses diffuse through respiratory membrane and alveoli wall - the respiratory center which is located in the medulla a portion of brain just above the spinal cord - the respiratory center receives input from several sources and adjusts breathing rate - respiratory rate is regulated by CO2 receptors on the medulla, these adjust the breathing rate to maintain low CO2 in blood and adequate O2 levels - blood transports CO2- 10% dissolved in plasma, 20% bound to hemoglobin, 70% combines with water to form bicarbonate ions HCO3 in the following reaction CO2+H2O—>H+HCO3 Chapter 35 Digestive System - Nutrients- carbs, lipids, proteins, minerals, vitamins, H2O - BMI- an imprecise but common tool for estimating a healthy weight based on heigh and weight but doesn't distinguish between muscles and built - average BMI 18.5-24.9 - in US 35% of all adults are overweight and additional 35% are obese - our cells can synthesize most of the molecules our bodies require but they cant synthesize certain raw materials called essential nutrients which must be supplied - ex. certain fatty acids, amino acids variety of minerals and vitamins, and H2O - protein deficiency can result in a kwashiorkor which occurs mostly in poor countries - below know: potassium, sodium iron, zinc, iodine - water soluble vitamins consist of vitamin C and B complex, these vitamins often come out of urine if excess is in the body - fat soluble vitamins consist of Vitamins A, D, E, K - polegra- B complex vitamin deficie
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