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Lecture 4

BIOL 1201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Glycosidic Bond, Carbon, HydrolysisPremium


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201
Professor
Moroney, James
Lecture
4

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BIOL 1201- Lecture 4- Macromolecules, Cell Structure
Macromolecules
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic acids
oMost (some exceptions) polymers are made up of smaller units monomers
oSynthesis is by dehydration reaction
Figure 5.2
oBreakdown is by hydrolysis
Carbohydrates
Made up of Carbon(C), Hydrogen (H), and Oxygen (O)
Linear or ringed structures
oThree groups:
Monosaccharides (CH2O)n
Figure 5.3
In solution, carbohydrates normally form ring structures
1. Trioses C3H6O3
oglyceraldehyde
odihydroxyacetone
2. Pentoses C5H10O5
oribulose
oribose
3. Hexoses C6H12O6
oglucose
ogalactose
ofructose
Disaccharides: two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic bond
(hydrolysis)
Figure 5.5
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Important Disaccharides
oSucrose: glucose + frutose
oLactose: galactose + glucose
oMaltose: glucose + glucose
Polysaccharides: sugar polymers of monosaccharides (100’s to 1000’s of
monomers joined by glycosidic bonds)
Functions:
oEnergy storage polysaccharides
Starch (mostly plant cells): 1-4 linkage of alpha
glucose.
Amylose-unbrached polymer
Amylopectin- branched polymer
Starch is a major storage molecule in
plants
Glycogen (animals): like amylopectin but more
highly branched.
Storage molecule in vertebrates
oMobile energy molecules
Glucose
Sucrose
oStructural functions
Cellulose: plant cell walls 1-4 linkage of beta
glucose, generally unbranched
Major structural component of plant cell
walls
Chitin: fungal cells wall, insect and arachnid
exoskeletons
Lipids
Made up of C, H, and O
Building blocks are glycerol and fatty acids
Classified as triglycerides, diglycerides (Phospholipids)
Functions: (many different functions) main component of membranes, energy storage
and mobilization, hormone production, etc.
Review Figures 5.10, 5.12
Proteins
Made up of C,H, O, Nitrogen (N), and Sulfur (S)
Building blocks of amino acids
Proteins have an incredibly wide variety of functions
Functions: structural, catalysis, movement, and regulatory
20 different Amino Acids can be found in proteins Figure 5.15
oNonpolar 9
oPolar 6
oElectrically charged
Acidic 2
Basic 3
Formation of polypeptides
oBond forms between carboxyl and amino groups of two amino acids
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