AMS 207 Lecture 2: AMS 207 Notes 2-9

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11 May 2017
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Immigration History
- Before 1924, immigration from Europe was almost unrestricted
o Until 1882 (Chinese exclusion Act), Chinese immigration was largely ignored
- From 1650 to 1820, immigration is very slow and homogeneous
o Mostly English and Scottish, some black slaves (earlier indentured servants)
- Small cities, communal outlooks
o Many immigrants leave cities for farms
- 1840-1860
o Beginning of the First Wave of immigration
o 4 million total immigrants arrive
o Most Irish (potato famine) and German
- 1870-1920
o 26 million immigrants to the US
o Coincides with industrialization and feeds urbanization
o Meltig Pot
o Much more diverse
Italians, Polish, Russians, Slavs, and Asians
- Push Factors
o Agricultural depression and political uprising
o European industrialization undercuts older forms of labor in Germany
- Pull Factors
o Political and individual rights
o US and State governments want more people
o Industry needs more labor power
o High geographic mobility and lots of land: both natives and immigrants move into
western lands (Homestead Act, 1870)
New York: The global in the local
- Cities are often where globalization becomes most obvious
- By 1855, 2/3s of New York is foreign born
o Most poor and unskilled
- Nihe idustries ad a rae to the otto.
Effects of Industrialization
- Local specialization becomes geared towards national and international markets
o Transport technologies open new markets
o Flow of commodities increased rapidly, widespread changes in mode of production,
leading to greater bifurcation between work and leisure
Street Culture: Gangs, Boxing, and Drinking
- Oppositional culture for displaced artisans and new working class
- Middle class: sobriety, restraint, domesticity, work ethic
- Working class: Heavy drinking culture
- Arenas for demonstrating masculinity in a world where socioeconomic mobility is limited
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