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Lecture 4

ANP202 Lecture 4-1

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Michigan State University
ANP 201

Lecture 4-1: Population Genetics Big Question *What causes evolutionary (genetic) change? Evolution *Evolution is genetic change in a population or species *Populations are the smallest units that can evolve *Population/Deme: A local group of organisms that have similar genes, interbreed, and produce offspring *Species: a group of related organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile, viable offspring *In other words, a species is a group of organisms that are reproductively isolated from other populations Scale of Evolution *Microevolution -Small scale evolution; changes in allele frequency from a generation to the next *Macroevolution -Substantial change, exemplified by a speciation event (i.e. give rise to a new species) over many generations Population Genetics *The study of changes in a population’s genetic material (allele frequency) across generations *Examines how genotypic and phenotypic frequencies of the population change over time *Gene pool: all the genetic information in the breeding population *Equilibrium: a condition in which the system is stable and unchanging *A population is in equilibrium if the frequencies of alleles for a particular trait remain constant across generations (absence of evolution) *What factors account for equilibrium? *Godfrey Hardy (1877-1947) & Wilhelm Weinberg (1862-1937) independently found that some alleles are in equilibrium -No mutation -No natural selection -No gene flow -Large population -Random mating -Members of the population produce the same number of offspring The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium *The frequency of alleles in a population’s gene pool remains constant over generations unless factors other than sexual recombination act upon it (the exchange of alleles in meiosis & random fertilization has no effect on the gene pool) Hardy-Weinberg Law of Equilibrium *A mathematical model that reflects the relationship between frequencies of alleles and genotypes p+q=1 p2+2pq+q2=1 where p= frequency of dominant allele, R q= frequency of recessive allele, r *Useful to determine whether a population is going through evolutionary changes Punnett Square in Population Genetics p2 = frequency of homozygous dominant genotype 2pq = frequency of heterozygous genotype q2 = frequency of homozygous recessive genotype HW E
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