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Lecture 14

PSY 101 Lecture 14: CH 13 → PERSONALITY

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Michigan State University
PSY 101

CH 13  PERSONALITY What is personality?  Unique and relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings and actions  Spectrum of individual differences  Personality o Develops overtime o Both learned and genetic o Consistency over situations and time How is Personality Assessed?  Interviews o Either structured or unstructured  Observations o Direct observation with set of evaluation guidelines  Objective Tests o Test takers self-report on paper and pencil questionnaires  Projective tests o Test takers respond to ambiguous stimuli Objective Tests  Uses standardized questionnaires  Take an empirical approach to personality test development  Questions are chosen because previous research has shown that questions were answered differently by groups of people who differ in personality characteristics Projective Tests  Uses ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots, which allow the test taker to project his/her unconscious thoughts onto the test material  Rorschach Inkblot Test  Thematic Apperception test MAJOR PERSONALITY THEORIES Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory  Personality is rooted in unconscious conflicts between our desires and our actual experiences  4 key concepts o Levels of consciousness o Personality structure o Defense mechanisms o Psychosexual stages of personality development Freud’s Levels of Consciousness  Conscious mind o Open and easy to see  Preconscious Mind o Contains info that can be viewed with a little extra effort  Unconscious Mind o Completely hidden from personal inspection Freud’s Personality Structure  ID o The primitive, instinctive part of personality that words on the pleasure principle o Seeking immediate gratification  Ego o The rational, decision-making part of personality that operates according to the reality principle o Delays gratification of the ID’s impulses until appropriate  Superego o The “conscience” or moral part of personality that incorporates parental and societal standards for morality o Guilt if rules are broken Defense Mechanisms  The ego’s protective method of reducing anxiety by distorting reality and self-deception  Repression * Sublimation * Denial * Rationalization * Intellectualization * Projection * Reaction formation * Regression * Displacement What is Rationalization  Unacceptable behaviors being reinterpreted as socially acceptable  “Everyone does it” What is Intellectualization?  Ignoring the emotional aspects of a painful experience by focusing on abstract thoughts, words or ideas  Reading about cancer to avoid the emotions of having it What is Projection?  Transferring unacceptable thoughts, motives or impulses to others  Denying your attraction to others by being unreasonably jealous of your mate What is Reaction Formation?  Blocked desires replaced by behavior that is the opposite of the original intent in an ex
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