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PSY 101
Professor Hambrick

Stephanie ChacePsychology 101Semester NotesPROLOGUE Owen Gingerich Our minds are by far the most complex physical object known to us in the entire cosmos Our consciousness continues to be a mystery Our thinking emotions and actions fascinate us The inner space is what we truly do not know What is PSYCHOLOGYScience of behavior and mental process and all of its manifestations Scientific study of observable behavior how we change in our thinking ours emotions our personality and the way we develop and interact in a group of peopleIn a large group of people you are effected emotionally and the way you think Psychologists study personalities How we work in a workplaceschoolScience is rooted in observation You can observe behavior in response to different situationsTo be human is to be curious about ourselves and the world around us Psychology was split up into schools of thoughtbranchesStructuralismFunctionalismSelf Reflection Introspectionlooking inward Consciousness enables us to consider our past adjust to our present and plan our future Margaret Floy Washburnfirst woman to receive a psychology PHD The Animal MindCS Lewis There is one thing and only one in the whole universe which we know more than we could learn from external observation That one thing is our selves We have so to speak inside informationFreudian Psychology emphasized the ways our unconscious thought processes and our emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behavior Humanistic Psychology drew attention to ways that current environmental influences can nurture or limit our growth potential and the importance of having out needs for loveacceptance satisfiedCognitive Psychology explores the ways we perceive process and remember information John LockeEuropean Philosopher the mind is blank sheet on which experience writesNatural Selection nature selects traits that best enable an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment Nuture works on what nature endows Three levels analysisBiological influencesPsychological influencesSocial cultural influencesCHAPTER 1 Thinking Critically With Psychological ScienceWe look for patternsCuriositya passion to explore and understand without misleading or being misled Critical Thinkingexamines assumptions discerns hidden values evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions Theory explains with principles that organize observations and predict behaviors or events Hypothesis a good theory produces testable predictions Naturalistic Observation does not explain behaviorWe might theorize that the cause of depression is low selfesteemones feeling of selfworthWe might hypothesize the depression and selfesteem will correlate negatively The number of symptoms goes upselfesteem goes down Step 1 Generate a Research QuestionSimple observationone source of research questions psychology is simply observing the world around you and asking questions about why people think and behave as they do Kitty Genovese 1960s women who was abused and killed in the street neighbors witnessed and saw what was going on and NO ONE came to her aidWent on for 3040 minutes Darley and Latane hypothesized that nay given bystander is less likely to give aid to a victim if other bystanders are presentDiffusion of Responsibility A confederatethe people that is playing a role of the distressed Personal Experience Replicationseeing whether a basic finding can be observed again with different participants and under different circumstancesOperational Definitionspecific statement of the procedures used to define research variables so as to allow others to replicate the original observations Step 2 The operational definition of intelligence might be the number correct on tests on verbal spatial numerical and reasoning abilities Step 3 Choose a Research DesignThe major types of methods that psychologist use in their research MethodsoDescriptiveThe Case Study an indepth investigation of a single or very few subjectsAlex the Grey African ParrotObjection permanenceemerges around 68 monthsThe surveyan investigation of many cases in less depth by asking people to report opinions ad behaviors Naturalistic observationrecording behavior in its natural environments and describing it in detail Observing chimpanzees Studied humansthe presence of other people effects the way we think and behave oCorrelationalpurpose is to observe naturally occurring relationships between variables Statistical index of a relationship between two variables 1 to 1Positive correlationwhen high values are associated with high values on another variableNegative correlationwhen high values on one variable are associated with low values on anotheroExperimental purpose is to explore cause and effect by manipulating one or more factors while holding other factors constantVariableanything that can fluctuate change states Independentcan affect other variablestheir effect is being studied Dependentvariable that may change in response to manipulation of the independent variable Directionality Variable A can cause variable B or Variable B can cause variable ASpurious Correlationcorrelation occurs just because two variables creates third variablethe winter makes people stay inside more babies
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