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Sensation And Perception.pdf

8 Pages

Course Code
PSY 101
Professor Hambrick

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Sensing the World. Some basic principles. Sensation – the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment. Perception -- the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events. Bottom up processing – analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brains integration of sensory information Top down information – information processing guided by higher level mental processes as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations. ▯ Thresholds! Psychophysics – the study of relationships between the physical characteristics and stimuli, such as there intensity and our psychological experience of them. ▯ Absolute threshold -- the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 % of the time. ▯ Signal detection theory – a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of faint stimulus while background stimulus is going on. ▯ Subliminal – below ones absolute threshold for conscious awareness. Priming – The activation often unconsciously of certain associates predisposing ones perception memory or response. ▯ Difference Threshold – minimum difference between two stimuli requiring for detect• Weber’s Law – to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum by a constant minimum percentage. Sensory Adaptation – diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation. Vision!! ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Transduction – the conversion of one form of energy into another. ▯ Light enters through the CORNEA! CORNEA protects the eye and bends light to focus. THEN THE LIGHT PASSES THROUGH THE PUPIL – small adjustable opening surrounded by the IRIS which is a colored muscle that adjust light intake. It dilates or constricts in response to inner emotions or light intensity. Behind the pupil is the LENS which focuses incoming light rays into an image. And then the image goes on into the RETNA which is multy layer tissue on the eyeballs sensitive inner surface. The LENS focuses the rays through a process called accommodation where it changes shape to focus objects near or far. ▯ ▯ ▯ The Retina Light enters the outer layers of the retina and burries into receptor cells known as rods and cones. Rods – blacks whites and greys (peripheral and twilight vision) Cones – near the center .. daylight or well light conditions (give detail and give rise to color) ▯ CONES—CLOWN HAT.. COLORFUL.. VERY DETAILED. CENTER OF THEIR HEAD. HATE DIM LIGHT. RODS – SHOWER ROD .. WHITE OR GRAY NOTHING CRAZY. ▯ Fovea – central point of the retina • The cones cluster around it.. ▯ ▯ OPTIC NERVE – carries info to the brain! Blind spot .. where the optic nerve leaves the eye, there is a blind spot. • No receptor cells. Place Theory says that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea membrane is stimulated. ▯ Frequency theory – the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone thus enabling us to sense its pitch – LOW PITCHES! ▯ Hearing loss – ▯ conduction hearing loss is hearing loss caused by the damage mechanical system. That conducts sound waves to the cochlea. sensory neural -- hearing loss by damage to receptor cells to Cochlea implant – concerting sounds into electrical signals and through electrodes threaded through the cochlea. ▯ Touch .. skin has specific nerve ending in the skin .. ▯ Kinesthesis 
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