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Lecture 13

CMDA 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Cultivation Theory, Cultural Studies, Hypodermic Needle

Communication and Media Arts
Course Code
CMDA 110
Joel Penney

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Continuation from 3.21.17
The rise of cable tv
CATV (first cable system) brought network programming to areas that couldn’t receive
broadcast signals
Starting in the 70s, cable networks provided original programming to local cable systems
Cable networks bypassed airwaves, not subject to FCC regulation
Ex HBO (Home Box Office)
The post-network era: cable dominates
Cable networks expanded in 80s and 90s, targeting niche audience demographics and tastes
Ex Viacom’s MTV, VH1, BET, CMT
Overall primetime cable viewership surpassed broadcast in 2004, although audience is
fragmented and spread out
Time shifting: The end of tv as we know it?
Tv programming is increasingly watched whenever people want, rather than when it’s scheduled
by the networks
Cable on-demand services
Streaming we video (netflix, hulu)
Digital video recorder (Tivo)
Downloads to portable devices (iTunes)
The post-network era: recent trends
Cord-cutting: getting rid of cable and only watching content available online
TV everywhere: networks offering content online through “authenticated” cable subscriptions
Binge-watching: new pattern of viewership in time-shifting era
Related to trend of complex, high-quality serial storytelling
Understanding media effects
Approaches to media research
Social scientific
Focuses on measurable effects of media on behaviors and attitudes
Uses experiments, surveys, etc.
“Who says what to whom with what effect”?
Cultural studies approach
Focuses on cultural meanings of texts, interpretive and literary analysis
Early models of media effects
“Hypodermic needle”/ “magic bullet”: strong effects on weak audiences, stems from fears about
influence of propaganda in early 20 century
Minimal effects: media mostly reinforce existing behaviors/attitudes
Selective exposure and selective retention
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