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Lecture 7

BIOL 1115 Lecture 7: Chapter 7

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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1115
Professor
terrikanner

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Chapter 7: Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
Cellular respiration (Aerobic Respiration)
* Cellular respiration may occur under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions (in some prokaryotes). For our purposes cellular respiration is an
aerobic process.
Define cellular respiration
o The set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert
biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and then release waste
products.
List the energy-yielding foods that are reservoirs of electrons associated with hydrogen.
1. Glucose
2. Carbon
3. Oxygen
4. Hydrogen
The purpose of cellular respiration is to make the energy intermediates ATP and NADH. What type of
chemical reaction is responsible for their production?
o
Define:
o Oxidation
Removal of electrons
o Reduction
Addition of electrons
What is the acronym for an oxidation-reduction reaction?
o Redox reactions
Can the above reaction occur without a donor or acceptor?
What is NADH?
o Energy intermediate
o Releases a lot of energy when oxidized that can be used to make ATP
List two ways in which ATP is made and define/describe each
o Substrate-level phosphorylation
Enzyme directly transfers phosphate from one molecule to another molecule
o Chemiosmosis
Energy stored in electrochemical gradient is used to make ATP from ADP and Pi
If the glucose could immediately react with oxygen, then all the energy via a redox reaction would be released at
once. Because body temperature is low and the barrier of activation high, oxidation of food molecules occurs in a
stepwise fashion mediated by specific enzymes (i.e. each step requires a specific enzyme).
List the three main phases of cellular respiration:
o 1.Glycolysis
a. Breakdown of pyruvate
o 2. Citric acid cycle
o 3. Oxidative phosphorylation
Glycolysis (starting molecule = glucose)
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*Although glycolysis does not require oxygen to occur it is considered part of cellular respiration because it almost always precedes
the other two steps.
Stage 1 of cellular respiration
Occurs in cytosol
Can occur with or without oxygen
Input molecule glucose
Steps in glycolysis nearly identical in all living species
Phases
o 1) energy investment
2 ATP Hydrolyzed
o 2) Cleavage
2 molecules glyceraldehyde
3 phosphate
o 3) Energy liberation
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Complete the table below:
Glycolysis
(prokaryotes and
Eukaryotes)
Pyruvate Oxidation
an intermediate
step
Citric Acid Cycle/
Krebs cycle
Electron Transport
Chain &
Chemiosmosis
Where it occurs
Cytosol
mitochondrial
matrix
Mitochondrial
Matrix
Inner mitochondrial
membrane
Input molecule
Glucose
pyruvate
Acetyl group
Requirement for
oxygen yes or no
Can occur with or
without oxygen
No
Yes
Yes
End product
2 ATP, 2 NADH
CO2, Acetyl, NADH,
NAD+
2 CO2, 1 ATP, 3
NADH, 1 FADH2
34 ATP
NADH produced?
yes or no
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
FADH2 produced?
yes or no
No
No
Yes
No
ATP produced? Yes,
or No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Type of
phosphorylation
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
CO2 produced? Yes,
or no
No
Yes
Yes
No
List the three phases of glycolysis and explain what happens in each step
o 1. Energy Investment- 2 ATP hydrolyzed
Two ATP molecules are hydrolyzed, and the phosphates from those ATP molecules are
attached to glucose, which is converted to fructose-1, 6-biphosphate. The energy
investment phase raises the free energy of glucose, allowing later reactions to be
exergonic.
o 2. Cleavage- 2 molecules glyceraldehyde, 3 phosphate
Breaks the six-carbon molecule into two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.
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Description
Chapter 7: Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Cellular respiration (Aerobic Respiration) * Cellular respiration may occur under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions (in some prokaryotes). For our purposes cellular respiration is an aerobic process. • Define cellular respiration o The set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and then release waste products. • List the energy-yielding foods that are reservoirs of electrons associated with hydrogen. 1. Glucose 2. Carbon 3. Oxygen 4. Hydrogen • The purpose of cellular respiration is to make the energy intermediates ATP and NADH. What type of chemical reaction is responsible for their production? o • Define: o Oxidation ▪ Removal of electrons o Reduction ▪ Addition of electrons • What is the acronym for an oxidation-reduction reaction? o Redox reactions ▪ Can the above reaction occur without a donor or acceptor? • What is NADH? o Energy intermediate o Releases a lot of energy when oxidized that can be used to make ATP • List two ways in which ATP is “made” and define/describe each o Substrate-level phosphorylation ▪ Enzyme directly transfers phosphate from one molecule to another molecule o Chemiosmosis ▪ Energy stored in electrochemical gradient is used to make ATP from ADP and Pi If the glucose could immediately react with oxygen, then all the energy via a redox reaction would be released at once. Because body temperature is low and the barrier of activation high, oxidation of food molecules occurs in a stepwise fashion mediated by specific enzymes (i.e. each step requires a specific enzyme). • List the three main phases of cellular respiration: o 1.Glycolysis ▪ a. Breakdown of pyruvate o 2. Citric acid cycle o 3. Oxidative phosphorylation Glycolysis (starting molecule = glucose) *Although glycolysis does not require oxygen to occur it is considered part of cellular respiration because it almost always precedes the other two steps. • Stage 1 of cellular respiration • Occurs in cytosol • Can occur with or without oxygen • Input molecule – glucose • Steps in glycolysis nearly identical in all living species • Phases o 1) energy investment ▪ 2 ATP Hydrolyzed o 2) Cleavage ▪ 2 molecules glyceraldehyde • 3 phosphate o 3) Energy liberation Complete the table below: Glycolysis (prokaryotes and Eukaryotes) Pyruvate Oxidation – an intermediate step Citric Acid Cycle/ Krebs cycle Electron Transport Chain & Chemiosmosis Where it occurs Cytosol mitochondrial matrix Mitochondrial Matrix Inner mitochondrial membrane Input molecule Glucose pyruvate Acetyl group Requirement for oxygen – yes or no Can occur with or without oxygen No Yes Yes End product 2 ATP, 2 NADH CO2, Acetyl, NADH, NAD+ 2 CO2, 1 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2 34 ATP NADH produced? – yes or no Yes Yes Yes No FADH2 produced? – yes or no No No Yes No ATP produced? Yes, or No Yes No Yes Yes Type of phosphorylation Yes No Yes Yes CO2 produced? Yes, or no No Yes Yes No • List the three phases of glycolysis and explain what happens in each step o 1. Energy Investment- 2 ATP hydrolyzed ▪ Two ATP molecules are hydrolyzed, and the phosphates from those ATP molecules are attached to glucose, which is converted to fructose-1, 6-biphosphate. The energy investment phase raises the free energy of glucose, allowing later reactions to be exergonic. o 2. Cleavage- 2 molecules glyceraldehyde, 3 phosphate ▪ Breaks the six-carbon molecule into two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.
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