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Lecture 7

BIOL 1115 Lecture 7: Chapter 7

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BIOL 1115

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Chapter 7: Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Cellular respiration (Aerobic Respiration) * Cellular respiration may occur under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions (in some prokaryotes). For our purposes cellular respiration is an aerobic process. • Define cellular respiration o The set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and then release waste products. • List the energy-yielding foods that are reservoirs of electrons associated with hydrogen. 1. Glucose 2. Carbon 3. Oxygen 4. Hydrogen • The purpose of cellular respiration is to make the energy intermediates ATP and NADH. What type of chemical reaction is responsible for their production? o • Define: o Oxidation ▪ Removal of electrons o Reduction ▪ Addition of electrons • What is the acronym for an oxidation-reduction reaction? o Redox reactions ▪ Can the above reaction occur without a donor or acceptor? • What is NADH? o Energy intermediate o Releases a lot of energy when oxidized that can be used to make ATP • List two ways in which ATP is “made” and define/describe each o Substrate-level phosphorylation ▪ Enzyme directly transfers phosphate from one molecule to another molecule o Chemiosmosis ▪ Energy stored in electrochemical gradient is used to make ATP from ADP and Pi If the glucose could immediately react with oxygen, then all the energy via a redox reaction would be released at once. Because body temperature is low and the barrier of activation high, oxidation of food molecules occurs in a stepwise fashion mediated by specific enzymes (i.e. each step requires a specific enzyme). • List the three main phases of cellular respiration: o 1.Glycolysis ▪ a. Breakdown of pyruvate o 2. Citric acid cycle o 3. Oxidative phosphorylation Glycolysis (starting molecule = glucose) *Although glycolysis does not require oxygen to occur it is considered part of cellular respiration because it almost always precedes the other two steps. • Stage 1 of cellular respiration • Occurs in cytosol • Can occur with or without oxygen • Input molecule – glucose • Steps in glycolysis nearly identical in all living species • Phases o 1) energy investment ▪ 2 ATP Hydrolyzed o 2) Cleavage ▪ 2 molecules glyceraldehyde • 3 phosphate o 3) Energy liberation Complete the table below: Glycolysis (prokaryotes and Eukaryotes) Pyruvate Oxidation – an intermediate step Citric Acid Cycle/ Krebs cycle Electron Transport Chain & Chemiosmosis Where it occurs Cytosol mitochondrial matrix Mitochondrial Matrix Inner mitochondrial membrane Input molecule Glucose pyruvate Acetyl group Requirement for oxygen – yes or no Can occur with or without oxygen No Yes Yes End product 2 ATP, 2 NADH CO2, Acetyl, NADH, NAD+ 2 CO2, 1 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2 34 ATP NADH produced? – yes or no Yes Yes Yes No FADH2 produced? – yes or no No No Yes No ATP produced? Yes, or No Yes No Yes Yes Type of phosphorylation Yes No Yes Yes CO2 produced? Yes, or no No Yes Yes No • List the three phases of glycolysis and explain what happens in each step o 1. Energy Investment- 2 ATP hydrolyzed ▪ Two ATP molecules are hydrolyzed, and the phosphates from those ATP molecules are attached to glucose, which is converted to fructose-1, 6-biphosphate. The energy investment phase raises the free energy of glucose, allowing later reactions to be exergonic. o 2. Cleavage- 2 molecules glyceraldehyde, 3 phosphate ▪ Breaks the six-carbon molecule into two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.
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