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Northeastern University
PSYC 1101
Frank Naarendorp

Nicole Hicks Psychology 1101 Class/Chapter Notes Part Five Personality  Personality is a particular pattern of behavior and thinking that is: unique to the individual, and prevails/maintains across time and situations  Personality tests are designed to identify particular personality characteristics - psychologists study personality to discover the causes of individual differences in behavior o Personality research tries to id personality characteristics and see what factors produce/control these  Humoral theories of personalities (discredited) = based on 4 bodily fluids: o Melancholic, Phlegmatic, Sanguine, Choleric  Trait theories of personality  Allport says that there's a hierarchy o 1. Cardinal traits: Hitler (oppressive power); Mandela (justice), Mother Teresa (selflessness). “One in a million”, Highly dominant trait. o 2. Central traits, less influential: honest, warm, strong, qualities of a leader. o 3. Secondary characteristics: a bit of a troublemaker.  Raymond Cattell uses factor analysis. He reduced the number of personality traits to 16  Hans Eysenck identifies 3 personality traits -- extroverted/introverted, neurotic/emotionally stable, psychotic/self-control  Costa and McCrae -- five factor model = neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness  Social cognitive theory (social learning) = consequences of behavior and individual’s belief about these consequences determine personality  B.F. Skinner: you receive rewards for certain behaviors and punishment for other behaviors  Self-efficacy means knowing how to act in a given situation (and be successful). Understand the contingencies and how to elicit them  Situationism: traits are revealed by situations in which we find ourselves  Reciprocal determinism: behavior, environment and cognitive factors determine personality  Freud says there are two parts of the mind - conscious and uncon. psychoanylitic theory o Superego = conscience (rules that parents/society teaches you) o Id = instinctive impulses o Superego and Id are in direct conflict o Ego is the part of consciousness that thinks and integrates behavior. It is governed by the reality principle. It mediates in the conflict between the Id and Superego  Ego-ideal = ideals you strive for  Uses "defense mechanisms" to prevent Id from intruding into consciousness and prevent the superego from dominating consciousness  Superego domination of con. causes feelings of guilt  Defense mechanisms = rationalization (rationalize your behavior to make you less guilty), repression, projecting (I hate your brother so I hate you), displacement (Boss was mean to you and you be mean to your wife later), reaction formation (Mom is mean but later makes up for it by buying you toys), regression, identification (someone beats you up and you sink down to their level/assimilate)  Failures of defense mechanisms leads to neurosis (or neurotic personality)  Five stages of psychosexual development according to Freud. Crazy bastard o "Fixation" refers to arrested development o Oral Stage (0-1 years): sucking, oral gratification. Unresolved issues lay groundwork for aggressive personality (like smoking and excessive eating) o Anal Stage (1-2 years): toilet training. Unresolved issues lead to excessive neatness, possibly obsessive- compulsive behavior. Rigid personality, authoritarian behavior o Phallic Stage (3-4 years): disc overs sexual organs, beginning of emotional, sexual attachment to parent of opposite sex. Oedipus complex (boy, father is rival), elektra complex (girl, gravitates toward father) -- resolution = positive identification with same sex parent (negative means being submissive) o Latent Stage (6-11 years): aka latency period. Quiet from a psychosexual standpoint o Genital Stage (12-adolescent years): contact with other sex  Humanistic psychology -- emphasis on personal growth, life satisfaction, positive human values and self- actualization  Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (original 5 stage model) - everything depends on other, lower, stages >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>  Carl Rogers - Person Centered Theory o Freedom and potential for personal growth, incongruence/congruence, conditional/uncond. acceptance o ^^ Incong./cong. is what you are compared to what you want to be Psychopathology  Mental disorders had to be made medical!  Medical model ^^ adopted officially for neurotic issues, as opposed to exorcism or death. Abnormal behavior is a disease o Advantages = more civilized/humane treatment, distinguishes one illness from another (diagnosis/people like labels), etiology establishes the cause of the disease, prognosis (foresee the future of the disease/predict symptoms) o Disadvantages = labels can be associated with stigmas, pseudo-explanations (the disease name is not a real explanation of the disease, you begin to play the role of the patient)  Abnormal behavior - changes over time and with different societies o Deviates from what society considers acceptable o Maladaptive behavior: everyday adaptive behavior is impaired (like with substance abuse) o Personal distress (depression, individuals self-report)  Stereotypes of psychological disorders: if you have one... o Sign of weakness (depressed people aren't fine, but you're okay if you break your leg) o Incurable (you will always be messed up) o Causes violent and aggressive behavior  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV TR (American Psychiatric Association) -- TR = text revision, ~20yrs ago o DSM V (five!) lists the criteria of mental disorders and WHY (focus on autism, aspergers, etc.)...comes out in May 2013  Epidemiology = study of incidence and distribution of psychological disorders in a population in a specified time period  Types of disorders! Yay!! The difference between normal people and psych patients is excessiveness o Anxiety disorders  Can be chronic, not tied to a specific thing, depressed or hyper (generalized anxiety disorder)  Persistent
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