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COMS 1010 (19)
Dan West (19)

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Ohio University
Communication Studies
COMS 1010
Dan West

1 Ch 5 Listening and Critical Thinking  Hearing-the act of receiving sound  Listening- the active process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages. It involves the ability to retain info, as well as to react empathically and/or appreciatively to spoken and/or nonverbal messages o Is an active process involving the construction, retention, and reaction to meanings we assign to info o We spend 33-55% of our time listening o 53% of college students days is spent listening  Why should we listen? o Helps with relationships o Essential for business success o Improve workplace relationships o Affects how we think about and remember information Three Processes of Listening Attention  Selective Attention- the focus we give to stimuli we deem important  Automatic attention- instinctive focus we give (name, danger, change in surroundings) Working Memory-  Interpreting and assigning meaning  Looks for connections and patterns  First stage of “thinking about something” Short-Term Memory-  Temporary Storage  Not big= 7 +/- 2  20 seconds Long-Term Recall (Memory)-  Permanent storage  May use “schema” (filing system)  Usually triggered by a connection from working memory Listening  Active Listening- involved with a purpose  Empathic Listening- understanding  Critical Listening- evaluate message for accuracy, meaningfulness and utility  Listening for enjoyment- iPods, conversation, etc Barriers to listening  Noise- physical, mental, factual, semantic distractions  Perception- status, stereotypes, sights and sounds  Yourself- Bias, Superiority, Pseudo Listening 2 Improve your listening  Invite comments/Ask questions  Vary your responses  Avoid silence  Use nonverbal communication  Check your understanding Critical thinking  Is where you analyze the speaker, the situation, and the speakers, ideas, to make critical judgments about the message being presented  Analyze the context or situation  Analyze the speakers ideas (what they say)  Analyzing ideas o Analyze sources o Distinguish between observations and inferences Arguments  Propositions-the statement you are trying to prove  Justification-the evidence you use to support that statement Emotional Proof (pathos)  Based on feelings or emotions Personal Proof (ethos)  Based on personal expertise, authority, or source credibility  Source credibility is the extent to which the speaker is perceived as competent to make the claims he or she is making Logical Proof –Reasoning  Inductive Arguments- use specific pieces of evidence to draw general conclusions  Deductive arguments- use general propositions to make conclusions about a specific instance (syllogism)  Major premise: all trees have leaves  Minor Premise: a birch is a tree  Conclusion: therefore, a birch has leaves  Begging the question- using circular reasoning or repetition to give the appearance of evidence  Non Sequitur- a conclusion that does not follow from the premise  Ad Populum- appeal to popular opinion or elite  Appeal to Tradition- Because we’ve always done it this way.. Without considering new ways  Straw Person- Attacking a weak or satirical version of an argument 3 Ch 6 Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal Communication  Communication that occurs within interpersonal relationships  Include two or more people  Involve people who are interdependent  Involves consistent patterns of interaction  Involves people who have interacted for some time  A lot to do with love Interpersonal Needs (William Shutz, 1976)  Need for inclusion, or becoming involved with others  Need for affection, or feelings for others  Need for control, or ability to influence others of environment (not physical control, people are always there for you) Two Types of Relationships  Complimentary- where each person supplies something the other doesn’t have  Symmetrical- both people are very similar Dark Side of Relationships  While the goal is healthy relationships..  Negative relationships happen o Obsession o Jealousy o Misunderstanding o Gossip o Conflict o Codependency- can’t be without each other Negative Behaviors Can Lead to…  Abusive or controlling relationships  We focus on healthy behaviors  Both participants have to be willing to work on these skills  Everyone deserves healthy relationships Self-Disclosure  Is the process of making intentional revelations about oneself that others would be unlikely to know and that generally constitute private, sensitive, or confidential information  Generally, private info about yourself you reveal to others  Is when you decide to share those things with other 4 Appropriate Self Disclosure  Generally increases as intimacy increases  Increases to reduce uncertainty  Tends to be reciprocal  Relational satisfaction and disclosure are related Friendship  Is important  Based on shared activities or thoughts  Change over time Stages of Friendships (Rawlins)  Role-limited Interaction (ex- work, clubs, only talk during activity)  Discovery of mutual interest (find out you have other things in common)  Personal topics or meeting times (meet outside of activity)  Private interaction rituals (ex- secret handshake, inside jokes, always meet up at a certain time/traditions)  Stabilized friendships (meet friendship criteria)  Waning stage (spend less and less time together) New Types of Friendship  Online Friends o Social Networking (or texting) o Time and Safety- you don’t give them the same amount of time  Friends with Benefits (FWB) Social Penetration Theory  Explains development of relationships through disclosure  It states that interpersonal exchanges move from superficial, non intimate info to more intimate info through the process of revealing personal info Relational Development 1.) Initiating o Who do I want to meet? o First step to talk to someone 2.) Experimenting o What’s your sign? o Get to know someone, set up a date 3.) Intensifying o Asked questions, Private jokes, more intimate info 4.) Integrating o Same group of friends, common property 5.) Bonding o Make commitment, exchange personal items o Marriage, promise ring, phone plan, etc 5 Relational Maintenance  Not a flat line like relational development, no order  Selection- time together is more important than your time apart  Separation- independence (in a healthy relationship you will not spend all your time together)  Neutralization- compromise, work things out together  Reframing- Thinking about things differently (having a child, marriage, etc) Relational Deterioration  Differentiating o I have my friends, you have yours (friend groups don’t interact at all)  Circumscribing o More time apart; drawing a circle o Not letting your other into your circle  Stagnating o Lack of activity; functional  Avoiding
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