HLTH 2300 Lecture 1: Chapter 1 - Introduction to Medical Language

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18 Feb 2019
Department
Course
Professor
Acquiring Medical Language Ch 1
1.1 The Purpose of Medical Language
Allows health care professionals to be clear, communicate quickly, and comfort
patients
1.2 The Origins of Medical Language
Made up primarily of words taken from two ancient languages: Greek and Latin
Eponym -epi (upon) + onyma (name)
"To put your name on something"
Formed by including the name of the person who discovered or invented
whatever is being described. Sometimes an eponym is named in honor of
the disease's first or most noteworthy diagnosed victim (ex: Lou Gehrig's
disease)
Acronym -acro (high, end) + onyma (name)
"to make a name with the ends"
Made up of the first letters of each of the words that make up a phrase (ex.
Chapter 1 - Introduction to Medical Language
Monday, January 14, 2019
8:55 PM
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Made up of the first letters of each of the words that make up a phrase (ex.
Magnetic resonance imagins, or MRI)
Why Greek and Latin?
The foundations of Western medicine were in ancient Greece and Rome
Hippocratic Oath named after and composed by a man named
Hippocrates who lived in Greece from 460 to 370 BC (father of
Western medicine)
§
Latin was the global language of the scientific revolution
Dead languages don't change
1.3 The Principles of Medical Language
Medical language is not words to be memorized, but sentences to be translated
If you understand the way the language works, you will be able not only to know
the meaning of a few individual words, but also to break down and understand
words you have never seen before, and even generate words on your own
1.4 How to Pronounce Terms Associated with Medical Language
The last syllable is called the ultima, which means "last"
The second-to-last syllable is called the penult, which means "almost the last"
The prefix pen- means "almost"
The third-to-last syllable is called the antepenult
Ante- means "before"
Antepenult - "the one before the one that is almost the last"
When counting backward from the end of the word, the emphasis usually falls on
the third-to-last syllable
Sound
Example
k
cardiac (KAR-dee-ak)
contra (KON-trah)
cut (KUT)
s
cephalic (seh-FAL-ik)
cilium (SIL-ee-um)
cyst (SIST)
k
chiropractor (KAI-roh-PRAK-tor)
g
gamma (GAM-ah)
goiter (GOI-ter)
gutta (GUT-tah)
j
genetic (jeh-NEH-tik)
giant (JAI-int)
biology (bai-AW-loh-jee)
f
pharmacy (FAR-mah-see)
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f
pharmacy (FAR-mah-see)
n
pneumonia (noo-MOHN-yah)
t
pterigium (tir-IH-jee-um)
r
rhinoplasty (RAI-noh-PLAS-tee)
hemmorhage (HEH-mor-rij)
z
xeroderma (ZER-oh-DER-mad)
1.5 Parts Used to Build Medical Language
Root - foundation or subject of the term
Suffix - ending that gives essential meaning to the term
Prefix - added to the beginning of a term when needed to further modify the root
Common roots
Root
Pronunciation
Definition
Example
Arthr/o
AR-throh
Joint
Arthroscope, arthritis
Cardi/o
KAR-dee-oh
Heart
Cardiology, pericardium
Enter/o
EN-ter-oh
Small
intestine
Enteropathy, dysentery
Gastr/o
GAS-tro
Stomach
Gastrointestinal, gastritis
Hepat/o
He-PAH-toh
Liver
Hepatology, hepatitis
Neur/o
NUR-oh
Nerve
Neurology, neuralgia
Hem/o
HEE-moh
Blood
Hemorrhage
Hemat/o
Heh-MAH-toh
Blood
Hematoma
My/o
MAI-oh
Muscle
Myocardial, myalgia
Muscul/o
MUS-kyoo-loh
Muscle
Musculoskeletal, muscular
Angi/o
AN-gee-oh
Vessel
Angioplasty, agiectomy
Vas/o
VAS-oh
Vessel
Vasospasm, vasectomy
Vascul/o
VAS-kyoo-loh
Vessel
Vasculopathy, vasculitis
Derm/o
DER-moh
Skin
Dermoscopy, dermis
Dermat/o
Der-MAT-oh
Skin
Dermatology, dermatitis
Cutane/o
Kyoo-TAY-nee-
oh
Skin
Subcutaneous
Pneum/o
NOO-moh
Lung
Pneumotomy
Pneumon/
Noo-MAW-noh
Lung
Pneumonia, pneumonitis
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