BIOL 1120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: Improved Sanitation, Convex Curve, Infant Mortality

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31 May 2016

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BIO 1120
Unit V
Chapter 55: Ecology of Individuals and Populations
I. Ecological terms:
A. _________ - the study of the interactions of organisms with one another
and with the physical and chemical environment.
B. _________________ - all the members of the same species that inhabit a
particular area.
C. ______________ - all the populations found in a particular area.
D. _________ - a community and its physical environment including both
abiotic (i.e. non-living) and biotic (i.e. living) components.
E. _____________ - the realm of all living things on Earth.
II. Characteristics of Populations
A. Each population has certain characteristics (demographics):
1. _________________ is the number of individuals making up its gene
2. __________________ is the number of individuals per unit of area or
3. _______________________ refers to the general pattern in which the
population members are dispersed through its habitat.
4. ________________ defines the relative proportions of individuals of
each ageespecially with respect to reproductive years.
B. The same area may be home to populations of a great number of different
species, but these generally differ quite a bit in terms of their density.
1. Crude density refers to the number of individuals in an area; it does
not tell how the individuals are dispersed throughout the habitat.
2. Variations in population density depend largely on ecological
relationships among the species occupying the same area.
C. Populations show 3 distribution patterns:
1. ______________________ is very common for these reasons:
a. Suitable physical, chemical, and biological conditions are patchy,
not uniform.
b. Many animals form social groups.
c. Many offspring are not highly mobile and are forced to livewhere
they landed.
2. _______________________ is rare in nature; when it does occur, it is
usually the result of fierce competition for limited resources.
3. ____________________ occurs in nature if environmental conditions
are rather uniform in the habitat and members are neither attracting
nor repelling each other.
III. Population Size and Exponential Growth
A. Increase in Population Size
1. ________ – adding new individuals from within a population
2. _______________ – individuals migrating into population
B. Decrease in population size
1. ________ – removing individuals from within a population
2. ______________ – individuals migrating out of a population
C. Growth rate of a population
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