Lecture 7: Adaptation, Behavior, and Perception

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Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources

Adaptation, Behavior, Perception Tuesday, November 5, 2013 8:05 PM I. Why does an organism move from X--> Y, its natal site to final habitat? What are the decisions involved? II. Blue-green algae ( prokaryotes ) a. Have a rigid cell walls b. In 3 basic shapes - coccus, bacillus, spirillum c. Mobile/motile using flagella i. Spins one way to move forward (attraction) ii. Spins other way (aversion) iii. A rippling pattern as bacteria are attracted to substance on agar d. Bacteria have sensory reception e. Orientation behavior is directional movement f. Bacteria are too small for nuanced experiments III. Protozoans (single celled eukaryotes) a. Have a cell membrane, enclosed nucleus, and an oral groove for a food vacuole b. Leeuwenhoek first discovered them with a microscope c. Use cilia for food and movement: complicated d. Relationships with marine and aquatic creatures for mobility e. Paramecium vs. Humans i. Paramecium (protozoan) 1. No brain 2. No sense organ 3. No neuromuscular system 4. No endocrine system ii. Human (metazoan) 1. Big brain 2. Sophisticated sense system 3. Complex neuromuscular system 4. Endocrine system iii. However, no differences in behavior. Rather, metazoans perfected protozoan behavior iv. Five examples of similarity 1. Protozoa react to all classes of stimuli to which metazoa respond a. Light, temperature, olfactory, mechanical, pressure, auditory b. Protozoa also respond to magnetic fields and gravity 2. Conduction a. Signal conduction from stimulus to neural centers i. Metazoa have complex nerves ii. Protozoa have contractions (e.g. Hydra) b. Certain parts of the body are more sensitive i. Paramecium: rear more sensitive, aversion if poked by pin ii. Humans - lips 3. Habituation (white noise) a. In Stentor, when tapped at top of cone shaped cell, contracting response b. Each time tapped, less of a response c. Spirostonum ambiguum i. When slide is tapped, they member for ten minutes 4. Learning a. Protozoa can learn b. Tube escape response i. Takes longer the first time than each subsequent time ii. T1 . T7 5. Higher Level Interaction a. Metazoa have complex communities - food webs: predators --> herbivores --> producers b. Protozoa also have complex communities IV. Metazoa a. How does your sample animal see their world? i. Humans: space in a 3D world ii. Bats: auditory field iii. Electric eels: muscle blocks arranged like bacteria 1. Create an electrical gradient b. Umwelt : species specific perception (Uexkull) i. 2 components to perception 1. Spatial a. Humans have a visual field b. Eagle has the best eyes: similar to human struture, but better c. 2 constraints: quality of sensory organ and functionality d. Flies have compound eyes - not great e. Mollusks have simple eyes - see shadows f. Paramecium have eye spots - see light and dark g. Frogs have ok but not good eyes i. Would dart out tongue for a dot and fly in the same way ii. Having good/bad/better eye has a minimum standard, and doesn't need to see better than the black dot h. Functional constraints i. e.g. clams closing when predator passes by ii. e.g. Paramecium attraction to food, aversion from not food i. Amer
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