01:830:101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Motivation, Overjustification Effect, Junk FoodPremium
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Properties of Motivated Behavior:
•Properties of motivated behavior:
–They are goal directed behaviors – motivated individuals keep working until
they reach their goal.
–If an individual varies the behavior and persists until reaching a goal, it is a
•Motivation as an energy
–The word motivation is derived from the same root as “motion” – something
that moves an organism.
–It can be defined as what activates and directs behavior.
–Motivation is the physical and psychological process that drives us toward a
certain goal. If the ‘push’ comes from within, it’s a Drive (internal conditions).
If it comes from ‘outside/external’ sources, it’s Incentive (external
–A drive is a state of unrest or irritation that energizes one behavior after
another until one of them removes the irritation.
–Drive-reduction theory proposes that animals strive to reduce their drives as
much as possible. Drive-reduction theory would predict that once all needs
have been met, the organism would become inactive.
•Homeostasis – maintenance of biological conditions. It’s the equilibrium your
body must maintain to keep you alive. Hunger is a homeostatic drive that
makes fuel available to the body. Conditions such as temperature, hydration,
nutrition, and weight are maintained at a state of equilibrium.
–Incentives are external stimuli that pull us toward certain actions.
–You eat because you are hungry and also because you are standing in front of
a restaurant offering appealing sights and smells of food.
•Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations
–An intrinsic motivation is a motivation to do an act for its own sake. It’s
stimulation or drive coming from within, an activity we enjoy and find
–An extrinsic motivation is based on the reinforcements and punishments that
may follow an action. We get motivated by external forces, not within self.
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