01:830:101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 27: Reality Principle, Gender Role, Humanistic PsychologyPremium
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•ID, EGO, AND SUPEREGO: THE STRUCTURAL MODEL OF THE MIND
–Id: The most primitive structure of the mind, the activities of which occur at the
unconscious level and are guided by the pleasure principle
–Ego: The structure of the mind that uses the reality principle to manipulate
situations, plan for the future, solve problems, and make decisions go
•Ego uses the reality principle to negotiate between the id and the environment.
–Superego: The structure of the mind that guides behavior to follow the rules of
society, parents, or other authority figures
Personality - Common defense mechanisms:
Freud’s structure of personality
Freud proposed the existence of defense mechanisms, which keeps these
thoughts and feelings banished in the unconscious.
Most of the time, these mechanisms function as healthy ways to suppress (hold
back, curb) anxiety.
•Rationalization - “making excuses” and reframing unpleasant events or actions as
beneficial or appropriate. Rationalization offers self-justifying explanations in
place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions.
•Repression - “motivated forgetting” of unacceptable thoughts and feelings.
Repression banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from
•Regression - a return to juvenile behavior. Regression leads an individual faced
with anxiety to retreat to a more infantile psychosexual stage.
You’re only young
once, but you can be immature forever!”
Denial - refusal to acknowledge a problem.
Projection - attributing one’s own undesirable characteristics or motives to other
people. “It’s no secret that a liar won’t believe anyone else.” Projection leads
people to disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
Displacement - diversion of an unacceptable thought or impulse from its target to
a less threatening one. Displacement shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a
more acceptable or less threatening object or person, redirecting anger toward a
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