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Lecture 27

01:830:101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 27: Reality Principle, Gender Role, Humanistic PsychologyPremium


Department
Psychology
Course Code
01:830:101
Professor
Lawrence Jacobs
Lecture
27

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Psychoanalytic Theories:
ID, EGO, AND SUPEREGO: THE STRUCTURAL MODEL OF THE MIND
Id: The most primitive structure of the mind, the activities of which occur at the
unconscious level and are guided by the pleasure principle
Ego: The structure of the mind that uses the reality principle to manipulate
situations, plan for the future, solve problems, and make decisions go
Ego uses the reality principle to negotiate between the id and the environment.
Superego: The structure of the mind that guides behavior to follow the rules of
society, parents, or other authority figures
Personality - Common defense mechanisms:
Freud’s structure of personality
Freud proposed the existence of defense mechanisms, which keeps these
thoughts and feelings banished in the unconscious.
Most of the time, these mechanisms function as healthy ways to suppress (hold
back, curb) anxiety.
Rationalization - “making excuses” and reframing unpleasant events or actions as
beneficial or appropriate. Rationalization offers self-justifying explanations in
place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions.
Repression - “motivated forgetting” of unacceptable thoughts and feelings.
Repression banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from
consciousness.
Regression - a return to juvenile behavior. Regression leads an individual faced
with anxiety to retreat to a more infantile psychosexual stage.
You’re only young
once, but you can be immature forever!”
Denial - refusal to acknowledge a problem.
Projection - attributing one’s own undesirable characteristics or motives to other
people. “It’s no secret that a liar won’t believe anyone else.” Projection leads
people to disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
Displacement - diversion of an unacceptable thought or impulse from its target to
a less threatening one. Displacement shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a
more acceptable or less threatening object or person, redirecting anger toward a
safer outlet.
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