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Lecture 9

01:830:271 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Synaptic Pruning, Prefrontal Cortex, Lev Vygotsky

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What do ou ko aout the hages the hild’s rai is udergoig that ight otriute to the
increase in processing speed?
Born with 25% adult brain size, but do not add neurons most neurons they will have in lifetime
Adding myelin sheets around neurons that speeding signals
Synaptic pruning making synapses sensitive to the environment, more signals than need so as
you age, the unused synapses start to disappear. Strengthening of the more used synapses.
Information Processing
Different from Piaget
o Piaget very vague when asked to describe what cognition was; not explaining what the
process of thinking or information processing works
o Quantitative; in infants fragile, easily distributed, easily to look like the do’t reeer a
o 2-3 years of age asking children to repeat back words; 2-3 pieces of information
o 7 years of age remembering 5 pieces of information
o 13 years of age 6-7 pieces
o Adulthood 7-9 pieces
Sustained Attention
o Open to learning new information coming in
o How long can an individual pay attention to the information?
o Quantitative change smooth change
Executive Functioning
o Purposely listening and writing things down control what the information processing is
o Monitoring process toward goals, detecting errors paying attention to the task
o Executive Attention
Developmental Changes in Executive Functioning
o Salience vs Relevance
A child will often to salience information that captures their attention; they are not as
good at focusing attention to relevant information. Rather they pay attention to stuff that
is salience.
I own 2 dogs. Their names are Boxer and Shadow. Boxer is 1 years old. Shadow is
yellow. When you add the age of Boxer and Shadow, you get the number 7. Boxer is a
black lab. Shadow and Boxer are big dogs. How old is Shadow?
Focuses on the size and color of dogs rather than the relevant information about age
o Planfulness
o Inhibition
Failure at inhibiting the incorrect response used to doing a certain task that leads to the
wrong response
Inhibit responses that are unhelpful or wrong, so that we can do the right task
A-not-B-error is the failure to inhibit the wrong responses
Blue typed in a green color, it is difficult to not say the word written difficult to inhibit
o Delay Gratification
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