BIOL 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Melatonin, Intraocular Pressure, Acetylcholine

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16 Jan 2018
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Unit 4 Notes
Endocrine System, Nervous System, Special Senses, Reproductive System
Endocrine System
o System composed of ductless glands that secrete hormones which regulate a variety of metabolic
processes
Hormone- chemical messengers that influence the metabolism of recipient cells
Biochemistry of
o Peptide hormones- active enzyme systems; require a second messenger such
as cycle AMP
Epinephrine
Oxytocin
o Steroid hormones- enter cells, activate DNA transcription and translation
Testosterone
Estrogen
Negative and positive feedback systems
o Hypothalamus (in posterior pituitary)
ADH
Oxytocin
o Pituitary (anterior pituitary)
TSH
ACTH
FSH
LH
Prolactin (PRL)- stimulates alveoli of breasts to produce milk
Somatotropic (growth hormone)
MSH (melanocytes-stimulating hormone)
o Thyroid
Thyroxine
Triiodothyronine
Calcitonin
o Parathyroid
PTH (parathyroid hormone)
o Adrenal gland
Adrenal cortex
Glucocorticoids (cortisol)
Mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)
Sex hormones
Adrenal medulla
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine
o Pancreas
Insulin
Glucagon
o Testes
Testosterone
o Ovaries
Estrogen
Progesterone
o Thymus
Thymosin
o Pineal gland
Melatonin
o Digestive tract
Gastrin- stimulates secretion of gastric juice
Secretin- stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice
Cholecystokinin- stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice and flow of bile from gall bladder
Vertebrate Nervous System
o Controls responses to the external environment and coordinates functions of internal organs
o Central nervous system (CNS)
Brain- center for complex integration of homeostasis, perception, movement, intellect, emotion
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Spinal cord- transmits sensory information to CNS, relays motor information from CNS
o Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
12 pairs of cranial nerves
31 pairs of spinal nerves
Sensory (afferent division)
Somatic sensory neurons- sensory information from skin, muscles, joints
Visceral sensory neurons- sensory information from internal organs
Motor (efferent division)
Somatic- voluntary, conducts impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles
Autonomic- involuntary, conducts impulses to cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, glands
Sympathetic division- fight or flight
Parasympathetic division- rest repose
o Neuron
Axon
Dendrite
Schwann cell
Myelin sheath
Nodes of ranvier
Telodendria
Nerve impulse
Resting membrane potential 70mvolts
Role of Na and K ions
Depolarization
o Na-K pump
o Membrane potential
o Threshold stimulus
o Action potential
Repolarization
o Na-K gates
Neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine- neuromuscular function
Biogenic amines
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o Tyrosine
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine
Dopamine
Serotonin
o GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
o Glycine
o Endorphins- inhibit pain perception, produced at times of physical and emotional
stress
o Enkephalins
o Reflex arc
Sensory receptor
Sensory neuron
Interneuron (association neuron)
Motor neuron
Effector
July 18, 2017
Brain Structure and Function
o Cerebrum
Functions
Higher thought
Reasoning
Cerebral hemispheres
Left- math, logic
Right- shapes, colors, sounds
Ventricles
Meninges
Cerebrospinal fluid
Functional regions
Brain lateralization
o Corpus callosum
Left and right of the brain
o Cerebellum
Skeletal muscle movements
o Medulla oblongata
Brain stem
Life support system
Glandular function
Heart beat
o Thalamus
Relay center for sensory information
o Hypothalamus
Under thalamus
Controls pituitary
Produces some hormones
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