Anatomy Review & Audiometric Measures

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Syracuse University
Communication Sci & Disorders
CSD 212

-Outer ear -Pinna (auricle) to tempanic membrane (eardrum) -Functions -Protects deeper structures -Amps high freq. sounds -Aids in localization of sound -Middle ear -Tympanic membrane to vestibule -Functions -Amps incoming signal -Protects inner ear — acoustic reflex -Inner ear -Vestibule to cranial nerve VIII -Functions -Oval window receives footplate of stapes -As stapes rocks, fluids set forth -“Traveling wave” thru cochlea received @ round window -TW falls on basilar membrane @ place consistent w/ freq. of signal -Transformations of energy -Acoustic: sound energy in canal -Mechanical: phys. mvmt of ossicles -Hydraulic: TW w/in cochlea -Electrical: firing of hair cells @ 8th nerve -Audiological testing -Goal: earlier ID of infants w/ hearing impairments -Guidelines -All newborns screen before 1 mo. age -Infants who don’t pass screening undergo eval. before 4 mo. age -Otoacoustic Emissions (OAE) -Quick & painless for children -Procedure: -Present tones into ear -Examine ear’s response to sound (mini microphone in ear canal) -Presence of OAEs = normally functioning cochlea -Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) -Refelcts elec. activity along auditory neural path -Waveforms recorded (electrodes on scalp & earlobe/mastoid) -5 waves @ specific time intervals (latencies) -No voluntary response — can be asleep -Conventional hearing testing -Audiometer -Determins threshold lvls -In infants, minimum response lvl -Audiogram -Plot of thresholds @ indiv. freqs. -Normal thresholds 0 to -5 dB -Otoscope -Visual inspection of ear -Check for otitis media or otitis externa -Look for obstructiosn (cerumen impaction) -Cone of light on tympanic membrane = no fluid -Air conduction testing -“Traditional” hearing testing -Can be pure tones or speech -Elevated threshold (>15dB) —> problem in any area of ear -B
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