HST 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: White Southerners, Body Politic, Equal Protection Clause

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6 Feb 2017

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Reconstructing America
Tuesday, January 17, 2017
2:46 PM
The seams of Union
Civil war gives way to Reconstructon" 1865-1876
A two-part process
Reconstructing the nation
How would the south rejoin the union, move past the bloodshed
Moved from saying the united states ARE to these united states IS
Reconstructing the body politic
A new president: Andrew Johnson (D-TN)
Firm believer in states rights but not succession
Didn't like compromise
Key Questions:
Who would control the process (of reconstruction)?
What will the focus be?
Presidential reconstruction (1865-1867)
Johnson seizes control over Reconstruction in 1865
Prioritizes reunion:
- pardons white southerners with less than $20,000 in pre-war property who were not
confederate officers/ officials
Grants individual pardon to most of those exempted
Streamlines readmission with few conditions
Black Codes
Johnson's reconstruction quickly shows its weaknesses
Southern states establish "black codes" limiting the rights of freedmen and freedwomen
Granted minimal rights but explicitly deny many basic privileges of citizenships
Restrict jury service, service in sate militias, voting rights
Limitations on land ownership, jobs
Require lengthy labor contracts
Courts can apprentice black children to white famers
The failures of residential reconsruction
Johns plan leads to other troubling outcomes
Southern states re[elect confederate leaders
mass violence against freedmen in New Orleans and Memphis (summer of 1866)
Changing Currents
Congress returns at the end of 1865
Attempt to take control of Reconstruction
Prioritize remaking the nation's citizenry
Johnson vetoes early efforts to protect the rights of African Americans
By mid 1866 the battle lines are drawn
Anti-Johnson Republicans win big in the 1866 election
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