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Texas A&M University
Animal Science
ANSC 303
Josie Cloverdale

Introduction To Animal Nutrition What is Animal Nutrition? • Efficient conversion of feedstuffs by animals into high quality food for human consumption ◦ Meat ◦ Milk ◦ Eggs • Optimal use of feedstuffs for maximum performance or longevity ◦ Performance- racing horses, animals used in competitions ◦ Longevity- will sacrifice optimum growth for something like a pet because we want them to live longer Efficiency of Nutrient Conversion is low • Across all types of Species/Product there is not a very high overall conversion of energy or protein • Energy is not retained, being used up by the animal • Same for protein, especially if it is a plant fed animal like cattle ◦ We end up with a higher quality product if fed off of plants even if it is not efficient ◦ Why we don't mind the loss of protein, animals convert a low quality product (plants) into a higher quality product (meat) for us to consume - food chain - Importance of Animal Nutrition • For most livestock production systems, feed costs represent 50-60% of total operating costs (60% is usually the percentage for dairy cattle) ◦ Performance - average daily gain (ADG) ■ ADG - how many lbs are you gaining per day ■ Not hard to maximize but usually not because of funds ■ You want as high a number as possible ◦ Feed Efficiency - feed to gain (F/G) ■ Want it to be as low as possible ■ Perfect ratio is 1:1 ■ Feed additives are used to help out feed efficiency so we can have a lower cost ◦ Profitability ■ Also want this to be a low number • Over feeding is wasteful and underfeeding decreases animal performance ◦ There is more waste if over feeding, which means more nutrient (nitrogen) in the waste which is not good for the environment and a major concern for the business and the government (EPA), laws in place which limit amount of waste etc. ◦ Waste is an equally important part of nutrition as much as the actual food ◦ Nutrient requirements change from species to species and throughout an animals life ◦ Proper analysis of feedstuffs and diets ◦ Estimation of animal nutrient requirements Animal Nutrition is Global • What happens in the US regarding Ag industry let alone Tx is not the same as the rest of the world • Growing population - a lot more people means a lot more food for them • Increased meat and milk consumption in economically developing countries ◦ Brazil and China both increased and have increasing population, both have an impactful economy especially Brazil in the Ag industry, which is huge. • Public concern/demand for increased food quality and safety ◦ We want things as cheap as possible but high quality with no additives, hormones, that are free range fedd etc (which is very expensive to produce) ◦ Ag industry is aiming for most amount of products, as cheap as possible, but sa
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