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Lecture 3

COMM 315 Lecture 3: COMM Exam 2 Notes

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COMM 315
Sherry Holladay

COMM Chapter 6 2/21/2017 8:43:00 PM Analysis Paper • 3 pages (double spaced) th • due March 9 at 11:50 pm • 3 parts of paper 1. Intro and Background Info 2. Sizing people up 3. Attribution theory Perceiving & constructing Meaning (Sense-Making) • Interpreting the world o Passive or active info processing…(or both) ▪ Passive is info processing you don’t think about  Come in and put down books and get out laptop ▪ Active Processing when you have to think about it  Often cued by something out of the ordinary  Coming into class and wondering why no one is there ▪ Dual Processing Models of perception (Both ) Mindlessness (automatic) Mindfulness (controlled) • Dual Processing Models of Perception 1. Attention & identification 2. Controlled categorization 3. Personalization (how you can relate to own motives) (notice food and realize you’re hungry) Perceptual Trio Affects Perceptions • Emotions o Emotional intelligence ▪ Your emotion got outa hand and you didn’t mean to kill anyone o Mood Congruity Hypothesis ▪ When we are in a particular mood, we tend to recall events that caused us to feel similarly ▪ When you’re sad and you keep thinking about other things that have made you sad. ▪ When you feel very excited and happy, you’ll remember other times when you were excited or happy ▪ “Quit wallowing in sadness”  assumption is if you do something different itll put you in better mood and youll stop thinking about sad stuff • Motivations o Motivations we feel during experience will guide experience o Auto-motives ▪ Automated things we think about ▪ Always thinking about comfort (the room is too hot, this chair hurts my back). Normally have motive to be confortable, so thoughts are in back of mind and we may not be consciously thinking about it. o Automatic Processing ▪ Always paying attention to something, possibly because of background or interest • Cognitions (Social Cognition) o How your brain works o Cognitive Structures (schemata) ▪ Based upon previous experience (from watching, or first hand) these thoughts are formed in our heads ▪ When processing info, we simplify things  Just lable it very quickly, so use little mental effort  Process things mindlessly (not effortful/mindful) o Principle of least effort ▪ Our minds try to think about things as easily and with as little effort as possible ▪ When in places who act differently, we will pay more attention and use more mindful processing. Social Cognition • Process of using cognitive structures • Important because 1. It affects interpretation of meaning ▪ Adopted a new dog, and when you pick up broom, dog freaks out. We can know that previous experience has influenced the dogs behavior and how it interprets meaning. 2. It guides actions ▪ If never experienced situation before, you don’t know what to do. So we watch others. We try to react by what we know, but we aren’t always right. ▪ Always hard the first time you do something, cause you don’t know what to do or how things work. But times after that, we know what to expect and how to behave. 3. Assess appropriateness of cognitions & helps gain control of social situations ▪ Do we have the cognitive structures to figure out this encounter? ▪ If in japan, you realize the limitations to your cognitive structures ▪ Walk into class and realize you have NO idea what’s happening ▪ Know when knowledge structures may be useful  Go to new country that is kinda similar to other, so can guess what to do 4. Communication creates social cognitions ▪ Schemata & Info Processing • Data: prototypes (abstracts) or exemplars (specific examples) o Say “dog”. If think of Kal, exemplar. If think of general dog, abstract • Parents will put their kids in lots of different activities so that they get the chance to experience many types of social situations. (Only children). • Schemata for… 1. Describing and classifying People (Big Bang Theory clip) o Stereotypes: group memberships predict behavior • ALL of those people act that way • Expect certain behaviors that go along with that stereotype • Doesn’t always have to be negative (typical Aggie) o Personal Constructs: attributes • When we interact with someone, what kinds of characteristics are we paying attention to? • What kinds of characteristics do you use to describe people? o Person Prototypes: assign person to category • Classify people into particular category 2. Defining Roles and Relationships 3. Info about the Self 4. Acting in social Situation 4 Perception Processes in Interaction • Sizing up Situations o Episodes: recall CMM (closed vs. open vs. defined episodes), scripts, and situational constraints • Sizing up People o personal constructs, implicit personality theory, primacy and recency effects • Sizing up Relationships o Self-monitoring, relational definitions, and master constructs • Explaining Behavior by making attributions o Personality vs. situation attributions and biases o Attribution theory Attribution Theory • Personality vs. Situational Attributions • Discounting vs. Au 4 Attribution Biases • Anchoring effect: the final judgment about the cause of another’s action is almost always biased toward one’s initial point of view (primary effect) • Overestimating personality (“fundamental attribution error”) • Underestimating situation (“actor-observer effect” – see own behavior… • Seeing from our own perspective (self protection) o Bias toward groups ▪ Positive bias toward in-group members ▪ Attribute (+) in-group actions to personality; (-) in- group behavior to situation ▪ The opposite pattern for out-group members o Self-Centered Bias ▪ Taking more than one’s credit for a jointly produced outcome (group project)  Easier to recall own contributions o Self-enhancing/self-serving bias (Egotism hypothesis) ▪ Take credit when you do well Tension • Role expectations   Individuality COMM Chapter 7: Meeting Social Expectations (Role Competence) 2/21/2017 8:43:00 PM Tension • Role Expectations   Individuality Roles and Social Identity • Roles: expectations/behavioral guidelines that correspond to positions o Are learned ▪ Like fish camp giving direct instruction. ▪ Can also learn by watching others o Are general guidelines for behavior ▪ Vague suggestions o Influence Identity and Self Beliefs ▪ It’s important to me that I’m the oldest child o Are multiple; we play multiple roles ▪ Problems can come from juggling roles • Positions: social labels o Occupational (student), family-based (sibling; eldest son/daughter); location on “social map” How Do We choose Roles? • 3 Factors 1. Degree of support • Looking glass self: self from others’ reflections • Social comparison theory: compare self to others o Can lead to conformity pressure o Comparing self to what we see in the media, and then developing eating disorders o Not always negative ▪ Everyone else is studying hard and you’re the only one who isn’t. 2. Amount of commitment to role • Self-perception theory o How we can look at ourselves as an object. Can look back on ourselves and judge by what we see o If you’re very conscientious about picking up litter and you recycle things all the time. You reflect on your own behavior and draw conclusion that you’re an environmentalist. o It seems that I really enjoy cooking and people say I’m really good at it, so maybe I should think about becoming a chef. 3. Rewards received • Intrinsic and extrinsic o Think about rewards that we receive from other people (parents, friends, etc.). You value rewards personally and they may not have actual value ▪ Feel since of intrinsic reward for helping friends o Extrinsic rewards are more of a physical reward ▪ Athlete gets money for playing sport Gender Roles • “They just like to be not the same as us” • Young children are unconcerned with gender roles o Little boys want to play princess and girls play racecars • Learn gender-based roles around 4 years old • How does our society promote gender-based roles? o Lego received criticism cause they were coming out with “gendered toys”. Friends and malls for girls, and trucks and construction for boys. • Gendered Products o Target got a lot of backlash when it announced that it was going to stop labeling toys as “boy toys” and “girl toys”. Role Terminology • Role: behavioral guidelines • Role Identity: imagined view of self as occupant of position • Role Salience: some are more important to us o Stem form support, own commitment, and rewards (intrinsic and extrinsic) • Role Repertoire: number of roles you can successfully play • Role Conflict: between roles of student vs. parent vs. employee • Role Rigidity: one role seems to takes over identity and dictate everything you do in your life o “military father” or “teacher parent” o can be difficult to leave a role at the office • Role Distance: signals a single role does not define us o “I am not just a…” police officer, parent, minister, etc. Erving Goffman: Dramaturgical Sociology • IS POSTED ON ECAMPUS ***watch*** • Communication as Performance o Theatrical metaphors (Dramaturgical Sociology) ▪ Face (self that we present to others) ▪ Face-work: process of presenting face  Protecting own “face” and others 1. Positive face: refers to desire to be liked and approval from others (desire for approval) 2. Negative face: refers to fact that people have need not to be obtruded upon. We don’t want people to ask requests that we have to turn down (need to be independent and have space respected)  Avoid face-threatening acts (FTA) • Roommate wants to borrow money. You want to be kind and loving to our friend, but also
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