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Lecture 4

BIOL 2010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Alternative Splicing, Human Genome Project, Ribosomal Rna


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 2010
Professor
Pirkle
Lecture
4

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CHAPTER 4
Overview of Genetics and Cellular Function
The Human Genome
o Made of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Which is made of four nucleotide bases
Adenine (A)
Thymine (T)
Guanine (G)
Cytosine (C)
o DNA’s futio is assisted y RNA rioulei aid
Various kinds
mRNA
tRNA
rRNA
o Difference between DNA and RNA
Table 4.1 (??)
Defining a Gene
o Genes have been defined in different ways over the years
oe gee oe oleule type
o For simplicity, we will define genes as a portion of DNA that encodes for a
molecule of RNA that will either become a protein or is the product itself
o Human Genome Project: humans have 20,000 genes that code for millions of
proteins
All humans are 99.99% similar to each other
The Genetic Code
o The system that allows 4 nucleotides to code for millions of proteins
o DNA sequence is converted by mRNA to a series of triplet codons
The genetic code is redundant in that several codons translate into the
same amino acids
Going from DNA to Protein Sequence
o DNA to RNA = Transcription
Involves enzymes that unwind the DNA and then RNA polymerase that
makes an RNA sequence
In eukaryotes (like humans) DNA is first transcribed into a piece of pre-
mRNA
Alternative splicing may explain why one gene can be multiple
proteins
o RNA to amino acid sequence = translation
Translation
Involves
o mRNA, tRNA, and ribosomes
Proceeds through a process (sex analogy)
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find more resources at oneclass.com
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