BIOL 2010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Abdominal Cavity, Negative Feedback, Inductive Reasoning

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Published on 22 Feb 2017
School
TNTECH
Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 2010
Professor
Chapter One
Anatomy the study of structure
Physiology the study of function
Distinct, but interrelated
o Physiology depends on underlying anatomy
o Anatomical structures in isolation are not meaningful without physiological
processes
o Leads to:
The Unity of Form and Function
Ways to study Anatomy
o By looking at it (inspection)
If no tool is needed to observe it, you’re observing “gross anatomy”
Microscopic anatomy includes: histology, cytology
Observation of ultrastructure requires other techniques like electron
microscopy
o Physical examination including:
Palpation
Auscultation
Percussion
o Dissections of cadavers
o Use of comparative anatomy (comparing to another species)
o Medical imaging (radiology) is useful for studying living patient’s anatomy
Ways to study Physiology
o Understanding physiology relies on knowing anatomy
o Experimental methods used to help us explain how and why something works the
way it does
Comparative physiology has been a useful tool for example
History of Physiological Study
o Came after anatomy was studied appropriately
Physiology was not well studied until after the general scientific community moved from
an inductive method of
Inductive vs. Deductive reasoning
o Inductive
Looks for a trend or a pattern in the observations
Makes generalized statements about those patterns
Example: we describe the normal anatomy of the human by looking at
many different human bodies
o Deductive
Begins with “premise”
An assumption if truth or a known “fact”
Deductions are made and, if assumptions were true, then the deductions
are also true
Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning
o Begins with an observation of data that begs some sort of question
o Investigator then makes a hypothesis
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Must be consistent with what is already known
Must be falsifiable
o A good investigator will then take care to design an experiment that will test the
hypothesis
Requires attention to many different factors that can affect the outcome of
the experiment
Variation (both natural and experimental), biases (of the
investigator and the subject), etc.
A good experiment will have….
o Adequate sample size
Doesn’t always mean 10,000 people either…
o Controls
In the case of an experimental drug:
Control group might receive a placebo to control for
psychosomatic effects
Treatment group receives the substance being tested
Sometimes a double-blind study is used to prevent intentional (or
unintentional) investigator bias
o Data collected that is then statistically analyzed
With the correct statistical test
o Data and conclusions must be shared and scrutinized by peers
Peer Review
o Not a foolproof system
http://retractionwatch.com/
Language of Scientific Understanding
o Differences in the colloquial and scientific meaning of some words has caused
confusion
Especially exacerbated by social media (RTs, Shares, etc.)
o For clarity… some definitions:
Scientific fact “information that can be independently verified by any
trained person”
Law of Nature “generalizations about the predictable ways in which
matter and energy behave”
Result of inductive reasoning based on repeated, scientifically
confirmed observations
Scientific Theory “explanatory statement or set of statements derived
from scientific facts, laws, and confirmed hypotheses
Human Evolution
o First, you didn’t come from a monkey
No one (that actually understands evolution) says that
We shared a common ancestor with chimpanzees and the other primates
You can think of them as our genetic cousins
o Evolution is a useful tool to help us understand the adaptations we see in human
form
Recall that form fits function
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Document Summary

Distinct, but interrelated: physiology depends on underlying anatomy, anatomical structures in isolation are not meaningful without physiological processes, leads to: Ways to study anatomy: by looking at it (inspection) If no tool is needed to observe it, you"re observing gross anatomy . Observation of ultrastructure requires other techniques like electron microscopy: physical examination including: Percussion: dissections of cadavers, use of comparative anatomy (comparing to another species, medical imaging (radiology) is useful for studying living patient"s anatomy. Ways to study physiology: understanding physiology relies on knowing anatomy, experimental methods used to help us explain how and why something works the way it does. Comparative physiology has been a useful tool for example. History of physiological study: came after anatomy was studied appropriately. Physiology was not well studied until after the general scientific community moved from an inductive method of. Looks for a trend or a pattern in the observations.

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