Class Notes (835,600)
United States (324,192)
Psychology (193)
PSY-0001 (107)
Lecture

Language II.docx
Premium

4 Pages
74 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSY-0001
Professor
Yvonne Wakeford
Semester
Fall

Description
Language II Reading ­ From the image that hits our retina, we can read aloud or read for comprehension ­ Letter processing o Normalization  Coping with variation (font, color, case, orientation) o Position encoding o Prediction: one letter at a time  Expect length effects • Longer words have more letters = longer reaction time o Prediction: all the letters in a word at once  Expect no length effects o Testing  Oral reading • What happens if length doesn’t matter for reading processes but  does matter for articulation  Lexical Decision • Is word X a real word? • Doesn’t require production, just a button press • Can, in principle, be performed based only on spelling • Results o No length effects (if word presented in fovea) o Supported by an analysis of lexical decisions for >2000  words • Implications: the letters of a word are processed in parallel o Converging evidence  Brian damage can result in “letter­by­letter” reading  Lexical decision accuracy increases with duration  Oral reading times show strong effects of length o Occurs in parallel ­ Letter recognition (bottom­up only vs. bottom­up and top­down) o Does knowledge about words influence letter processing? o Prediction: Bottom­up  Knowledge of the word should make no difference in the processing of a  letter o Prediction: Bottom­up and top­down  Knowledge of the word should facilitate processing of a letter o Testing  Letter detection • Push a button when you see certain letter • Results o Letters are easier to detect when embedded in words than in  solation o “Word superiority effect” • Implications: word information is used when processing letters,  indicating that top­down information is used ­ Word recognitions o Frequency effects  More frequent words are processed more quickly and more accurately than  less frequent words  Strongest effect in language processing o Prediction: other words matter  Words spelled similarity to other words should be harder to process since  you have to choose from among many options  Words that are not spelled similarly to other words should be easier to  process since there aren’t competing options • Difficulty should be observed as longer reaction times o Prediction: similarity doesn’t matter  Number of similar words should not have an effect o Neighborhood effects  Words that are spelled similarly to a word are called ‘neighbors’  Neighbor = 1 substitution/deletion/insertion change o Testing  Oral reading • May involve neighborhood effects in articulation  Lexical decision o General finding  High neighborhood density leads to slower reaction times in lexical 
More Less

Related notes for PSY-0001

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit