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GLOSSARY O F TERMS MECHANICS FUNDAMENTALS

NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION

Conductor Material which permits electrons to flow freely

Couple Two equal and opposite parallel forces that

are applied to the same body

Dielectric Insulating material between capacitor plates;

capacitance increases by numerical factor, k

(dielectric constant)

Electric Measure of the opposition that an electric

Impedance circuit presents to the flow of current when

voltage is applied

Electromagnetic Oscillations of the inductor’s magnetic

Oscillation field and the capacitor’s electric field

EMF Device Works on charges to maintain a potential

difference between output terminals

Equipotential Adjacent points on a surface with the same

Surface electric potential; electric field is always

perpendicular to equipotential surfaces

Ferromagnetic Substance in which magnetization persists

Material after the field has been removed

Force Vector action of one body on another

Hysteresis Residual magnetism that is left when the

material (such as iron) is slowly demagnetized

Inertia An attribute of bodies implying capacity to

resist changes of motion

Insulator Material that impedes conductance of

electricity

Integrated Complete circuit is contained in a single piece

Circuit of semiconductor material

Magnetic Simplest magnetic structure (such as a bar

Dipole magnet) where net magnetic flux is zero

Mesh In circuit analysis, a loop that has no loop in

its interior

Momentum An attribute that is proportional to the mass

and velocity of a body

Open Circuit Path for current flow between 2 points is

broken

Phasor A vector that rotates around an origin

Principle In a circuit network, a node (junction) with

Node three or more branches

Reactance Circuit property with capacitance and

inductance

Rectification Changing AC to DC by blocking the reverse

flow of a charge

Resonance An oscillation of a system at its natural

frequency

Semiconductor Material that is not conductive nor insulating

Shearing Force In mechanics, a force acting parallel to a

plane

Short Circuit Path for current flow between two points has

zero impedance

Stress In mechanics, the measure of internal forces

of a body between particles resisting

separation

Superconductor Material that presents no resistance to the

movement of electric charge

Torque Turning force or twisting moment

Torsion Torque applied in planes perpendicular to

body’s axis

Transformer Electromagnetic device with 2 or more

mutually coupled windings; it can raise and

lower voltage in a circuit

Law I Bodies will continue in uniform motion unless acted

upon by external forces

Law II The rate of change of a body’s linear momentum is

proportional to, and in the direction of, force applied

• F = ma

Law III Forces of action and reaction between bodies are equal

in magnitude, opposite in direction, and collinear

CONDITIONS OF EQUILIBRIUM

• Static equilibrium occurs when the resultants of all external forces

acting on a body are zero

Equilibrium Equations

GEOMETRY OF MOTION

• In mechanics, kinematics is the study of the motions of bodies as

a function of time

MOMENTS OF INERTIA

• Define the relationship between the area or mass of a body and

the position of a line

• Moment of inertia of a figure = sum of moments of its parts

Linear All points of a body follow congruent paths

Rotational Paths circle about an axis; velocity and acceleration

are proportional to the radius

Harmonic Body moves back and forth about a position at rest

Oscillation (amplitude represents maximum deflection)

Base Derivatives of Kinematics

Velocity Where srepresents distance and

trepresents time

Angular Where frepresents the angle

Velocity

Angular Where wrepresents angular velocity

Acceleration

Area Moments of Inertial, I (Statics)

Measuring

the distribution

of area about an axis:

Mass Moments of Inertia, I (Dynamics)

Measuring the moment of inertia

of a volume:

vds

dt

=

ω

=d

dt

φ

ad

dt

=

ω

IydA

x=∫2

IxdA

y=∫2

IrdA

z=∫2

y

0

A

x

ry

dA

x

IrDmrdm=∑=∫

22

dm

r

Note: Equations are for planar, 2-dimensional, and 3-dimensional

rigid body statics

• Vector relationships for a force system: ∑F= 0 and ∑M= 0

• Written as components along x-, y-, and z-axes, relationships

become ∑Fx= 0, ∑Fy= 0, ∑Fz= 0, ∑Mx= 0, ∑My= 0, and

∑Mz= 0

Electrical Engineering

Electrical Engineering

l e a r n • r e f e r e n c e • r e v i e w

TM

permacharts

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING • A-816-81© 1996-2011 Mindsource Technologies Inc.

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