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Lecture 32

ANSC 101 Lecture 32: Lectures 32,33+34 - Issues in animal science

11 Pages
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Department
Animal Science
Course Code
ANSC 101
Professor
Kasey Moyes

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Description
Today’s Topics • Organic operations • Consumer attitudes and perceptions • Population growth • Food Prices • Environment • rBST Definition of Organic • A system of farming that mimics natural ecosystems that balance pest and beneficial organism populations and maintain and replenish fertility of the soil. • USDA regulations: National Organic Program (NOP) guidelines for certification (http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?navid=OR GANIC_CERTIFICATION) Organic • Animals must have access to outdoors (eg. pasture, lots) • No antibiotics but can use vaccines • No growth-promoting hormones (eg. Estrogen implants in beef cattle, BST in dairy cows) • Feed, minerals and vitamins must not derive from animal slaughter by-products (eg. bone meal, protein isolates) • Only non-synthetic ingredients: o Direct-fed microorganisms (probiotics) o Enzymes o Yeasts • Pesticides • Vaccinations Organic • No genetically modified organisms (GMO) o Recombinant DNA technologies o Cell or Nuclear fusion o Gene insertion o Bt corn: Bacillus thuringiensis toxin introduced into corn to allow resistance to insects and pests • Regulations when bringing non-organic animals onto the farm o Feed organic feeds for period of time (12 mo) prior to harvesting milk, meat and eggs. • More strict than European standards Organic Certification • Certification Process o All feed ingredients must be 100% organic o Farm inspection o Intense record keeping o 3 year waiting period The Five Steps to Organic Certification Egg Production Organic • Farm size • Nutrition • Feed efficiency • GHG emissions • Residues • No FDA approved therapeutics • US vs EU standards • Guidelines vs law Consumer Attitudes and Perceptions • 72% consumers say they know little or nothing about how food is grown or raised o 70% say purchasing influenced by how food is grown or raised • 42% say the way food is grown or raised has improved in last 10 years o 37% say it has gotten worse • 86% farmers say consumers know little or nothing about farming o 56% of farmers think consumers have completely inaccurate perceptions Why Are Consumers Confused? • 1900: 98% farmers….2011: 2% farmers o = knowledge gap • Too many choices at the grocery store? o no GMOs, reduced fat, rBST free, organic, raw milk, antibiotic free, non- processed • Positive Ads • Negative Ads Consumer Attitudes and Perceptions: Changing Demographics • Aging population products o Lower birth rates, higher life expectancy • Emerging middle class acquires new purchasing power o 230 Million, 2000 -> 1.15 Billion 2050 • Urbanization o More educated, more brand conscious, higher disposable income o Farmers cater ‘value-added products’ ▪ Enriched milk ▪ Drinkable yogurt Consumer Concerns and Perceptions • Consumers love and respect farmers but…don’t understand and appreciate the modern industry • Recommended websites: o http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed o http://www.usda.gov or http://www.fda.gov/ o http://www.nih.gov/ o Higher education = focus on extension Population Growth: Land Resources and Food Prices Food Prices: Egg Prices Egg prices and consumer willingness • EGGS: Consumption unresponsive to price changes o 40% handicap money $$ only 10% change consumption o Low income consumers will be most affected • Few consumers pay high premium o Gov’t regulations o mandates The Environment • CH 4nd CO 2 • Ozone (O 3 • Methane o From manure storage ▪ Methane digester ▪ 25% from manure o From fermentation Not useful US homes: equivalent to 1 gallon propane/d Mason-Dixon Farms • Gettysburg and Fredrick st • 1 AMS • 1 Anaerobic digesters o self-sufficient o 1/8 of CH 4rom urine and manure rBST • Recombinant bovine somatotropin • Improves efficiency o Misuse with poorly managed farms o Need to address problems, not a solution • Most researched product to date • No (increase) GH in milk o (decrease) IGF-1 • Protein hormone not lipid-based • Not-biologically active in humans! o Unlike phytoestrogens (eg soybeans) What is a major disadvantages for producers regarding methane/manure digesters? a) Price b) Inability to recycle nutrients c) Inability to convert nitric oxide to energy used on farm d) All the above Next Lecture: Today’s Topics • Environment • rBST • GMOs • Raw Milk Consumption • Antibiotic Resistance Not useful US homes: equivalent to 1 gallon propane/d Mason-Dixon Farms • Gettysburg and Fredrick • 1 AMS st • 1 Anaerobic digesters • self-sufficient • 1/8 of CH 4rom urine and manure rBST • Recombinant bovine somatotropin • Improves efficiency o Misuse with poorly managed farms ▪ Need to address problems, not a solution • Most researched product to date • No (increase) GH in milk o (increase) IGF-1 ▪ IGF-1 – Insulin like growth factor • Protein hormone not lipid-based • Not-biologically active in humans! o Unlike phytoestrogens (eg soybeans) Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) • Introduction of one or more genes coding for trait o Ex: herbicide tolerance or insect tolerance • OR, obtained via extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alternations o Ex: metabolic pathways improvin
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