# CCJS 300 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: United States Parole Commission, Chi-Squared Test, Semantic Differential

by OC2395438

School

University of MarylandDepartment

Criminology and Criminal JusticeCourse Code

CCJS 300Professor

Alan LehmanLecture

10This

**preview**shows half of the first page. to view the full**2 pages of the document.**SCALING & INDEX CONSTRUCTION

-Levels of measurement: all variables may be classified as belonging to a particular level of

measurement

-Nominal: categorical, mutually exclusive categories, t-test or chi square test used when

assuming an IV

-Ordinal: may rank order the variable responses, numbers imply some distance (i.e.

attitude scales, spearman rank, order correlation)

-Interval: equal intervals between values of a variable (i.e. temperature scale, IQ tests)

-Ratio: true zero-point, equal distances between, advanced techniques such as correlation

and regression used

-Scaling procedures: using more than one question to measure something

-Why use scaling?

-May be hard if we just use one question

-Good for ordinal level measurement

-Scales & indices are efficient for data analyses

-Useful in our understanding of measurement in general

-The mean is an efficient measure of central tendency

-Distinction between scales & indices

-Index: constructed through accumulation of scores on individual attributes (similar to a

checklist)

-Scale: assignment of scores to patterns of attributes, may have an intensity structure

-How to devise multi-question scales

-All questions relevant to variable measured

-Evenly weighted

-Use interval or ratio level variables if possible

-All questions coded consistently & correctly

-Arbitrary scales

-Ex: figure 10.1 pg. 226

-The UCR, especially the index offenses list, is an arbitrary scale

-Arbitrary: unweighted

-Attitude scales

-Three major types:

-Thurstone scales: expert judges, “equal appearing intervals”

-Likert scales: most commonly used, 1 = strongly disagree, 2, 3, 4, 5

-Guttman scales: “unidimensional”

-Other scaling procedures

-Q sort: newer variation on Thurstone

-Semantic differential: 7- or 9-point bipolar rating scales, Good_ _ _ _x _ Bad, factor

analysis, get 3 dimensions: evaluation, potency, oriented activity

-Other variations, lots of different scales out there

-Crime seriousness scales: try to assign weightings to different crimes

-Types of seriousness scales

-Simple rating scales (1-9)

-Magnitude scales: Sellin-Wolfgang index (1966)

-Prediction scales

-Salient factor score: used by U.S. parole commission

###### You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version