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Chapter 10

CCJS 300 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Semantic Differential, Face Validity, Flight Controller


Department
Criminology and Criminal Justice
Course Code
CCJS 300
Professor
Alan Lehman
Chapter
10

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LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT
-Nominal: simplest level, objects are usually placed into mutually exclusive categories or types,
and there is often no necessary quantitative or statistical measuring to numbers assigned to these
categories, except as a convenience in distinguishing groups
-Ex: sex, race, religion, etc.
-Values may be assigned but do not actually have value
-Ordinal: placement of objects into ranks, for example, first, second, and third
-Interval: equal distance (intervals) between objects on a scale is assumed
-Ratio: interval level measurement that also has a fixed, meaningful, zero point
SCALING PROCEDURES
-Scaling procedures involve attempts to increase the complexity of the level of measurement of
variables from nominal to at least ordinal and hopefully interval/ratio
-They avoid reliance on any single response alone as an indicator
ARBITRARY SCALES
-Developed by the researcher and are based primarily on face validity and professional
judgement
-Easily criticized
-Ex: UCR index which features an attempt to combine the most serious and best measures of
recorded crime
ATTITUDE SCALES
-Major types: Thurstone, Likert, and Guttman
-Thurstone scales: attitude scales that rely on ratings by judges of scale items
-Equal appearing intervals: method that used judges to decide scale scores by sorting items into
categories
-Likert scales: simples summated attitude scale consisting of a five-point bipolar response
scheme for each item ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree
-Respondents do the job that the judges do in the Thurstone scales
-If a large number of respondents fail to answer an item, that item should be removed, could also
use an average score
-Guttman scales: insists that an attitude scale should measure one and only one dimension
-Unidimensional: requirement of the Guttman scales that the items measure only one dimension
(or concept); this is assumed if 90% reproducibility is achieved
-Can predict patterns, if last question was answered with yes, the previous questions likely were
as well
-Coefficient of reproducibility: reproducibility = 1 - π‘›π‘’π‘šπ‘π‘’π‘Ÿ π‘œπ‘“ π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘ 
π‘›π‘’π‘šπ‘π‘’π‘Ÿ π‘œπ‘“ π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘ π‘π‘œπ‘›π‘ π‘’π‘ 
OTHER SCALING PROCEDURES
-Q sort methodology: an attitudinal scale procedure in which the respondents sort questions (on
cards) into predetermined categories
-Scientific methods scale (SMS): Sherman et al., five-point scale that evaluates the
methodological rigor and type of research design of studies
-Semantic differential: attitude scaling procedure that consists of usually a seven- or nine-point
bipolar rating scale; respondents are asked to indicate their perception of the tag or description
provided
CRIME SERIOUSNESS SCALES
-Procedures that assign weight or severity rating to various crimes
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