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HIST 111
Janna Bianchini

Emperor CharlesAugustus 2/13/13 Carolingians create new sense of what it means to be Roman by blending Romanness, Frankishness, and Xtianity into a new identity - Instead of switching between Roman and Barbarian and blends all - Christiandom- geographic area under Xtian domain Scholars idea of Europe tied to Western Xtian religious community - Idea of unified and Xtian Europe is favorable and Carolingian empire makes idea a reality Mistreatment to religious minorities and Jews (marginal groups) - Not Xtian so not true European society Frankland was last ruled by Merovingians (but falls after falling of taxation system) - Then it became several small kingdoms, power centered in Neustria (Paris) - Nobles of Frankland became increasingly powerful, rise of mayors of the palace- a royal steward responsible for overseeing household, now they are the power behind throne as Merovingians weaken o Kings still have some power but not actively in his hands o MOP became a hereditary concession and is passed down to sons o Open for new dynasty to take power Charles Martel (martel= “the hammer) becomes mayor of the palace in 8 C th - Successful militarily and dynasty becomes the Carolingians (Carolis is latin for Charles) - Consequences of prominence is gets prestige at expense of Merovingian kings he “serves” - When Martel died, his son, Pippin the Short took his place and rules kingdom through puppet king o Sends mission to Pope to ask if is right for someone with no power to be King, and he says no so Pippin kicks out Mer King and is first King of the Franks o Pope was in military trouble and surrounded by Lambards of N Italy and needs protection  Deal: Pope will recognize Pippin as King if he conquers the Lombards (barbarian tribes, set up kingdom in N Italy)  Pippin conquers them and gives land to Pope: Papal States- secular dominion w/ no ruler other than Pope CHARLEMAGNE (“Charles the Great”) - king of Franks, emperor of Romans - Pippin’s son and reigns sees period of breakthroughs in government and intellectual culture and establishment of Carolingian empire - Ruthless, physically big, vigorous military campaigner, intellectual curious (wanted to know and improve everything), personally invested in how empire was run 1. Conquest - N Pagans and Saxons (Germanic tribe) were of concern, and Charlemagne campaigned against them to conquer them and end their frequent revolts o Saxon revolts was military and religious advance o Wanted to conquer Saxons and require them to convert to Xtian - Carolingian empire grows and Char gains favoritism 2. Carolingian Renaissance - Work of preserving ancient classical Latin manuscripts began, would’ve been lost if Caro hadn’t copied - Attracted scholars and they founded schools - Obsessed with uniformity and authenticity (done the way it was done in Rome) - how to run monastery, how sing, etc. o Must be uniform practice throughout entire empire o Rule of St. Benedict liked by Char and decided that his rule would be used by all monasteries (major reason by rule of St. Benedict was foundation of subsequent monasticisms) 3. Governance - King had a role in the Church (Char ran Frankish church- appoint bishops) - Had autho
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