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Lecture 13

PSYC 221 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Eyewitness Testimony, Explanatory Style, Confirmation Bias

Course Code
PSYC 221
Jennifer Wessel

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Lecture 13 Guided Notes
Define clinical hindsight bias and give one example: Being confident about the diagnosis after
the fact
-Ex: fake patients entering a mental hospital, said they were hearing voices, childhood
looked at and found it lined up with diagnosis or aftermath of a violent tragedy
What did the “design an experiment” exercise intend to show? Confirmation bias
How can clinicians show confirmation bias? By asking questions that led to the answer they
-Ex: Anxiety: Do you ever feel nervous in crowds?
-To reduce CB, ask open-ended questions
Depressed individuals tend to not have the self-serving bias that most people have.
Define explanatory style: typical way of explaining events
When negative events occur, depressed individuals tend to think of failures as (list and give an
1. Stable
2. Global
3. Internal
-Ex: Don made a mistake at work today. He sees this mistake as:
-Stable: I’m always going to make mistakes like this
-Global: I make mistake s in everything I do
-Internal: This happened because I am stupid
-A healthier explanatory style?
-Temporary, specific, external
Most people worry about self-presentation in highly evaluative situations (evaluation
People with generalized anxiety tend to have: very high evaluation apprehension leading to
constant self-presentation concerns
Eyewitness Testimony
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