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Chapter 2- Theories and Treatment of Abnormality.docx

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University of Maryland
PSYC 353
Richard Yi

PSYC353 9/6/12 Ch. 2: Theories and Treatment of Abnormality Diathesis- Stress Models p. 28- lead to disorder which makes vulnerable to certain behaviors (drug abuse) Diathesis (vulnerability in child development) – genetic predisposition toward an abnormal or diseased condition - Biological factors (genes, brain anomalies), Social factor (maladaptive upbringing, chronic stress), Psych factor (unconscious conflicts, poor skills) Stress- environmental - Bio trigger (onset of a disease, exposure to toxins), Social trigger (traumatic event, major loss), Psych trigger (perceived loss of control, violate trust) Biological Theories of Abnormality - Brain Dysfunction- abnormalities in the structure of the brain cause mental disorders o Can occur in three areas from injury/ deterioration:  cerebral cortex (controls advance thought process, decision making)  hypothalamus (controls emotions ex. Hunger, sex, anger)  limbic system (also involved w/ regulation of emotions and urges) o There are regions of the brain that compete w/ each other, drives regulated by parts of brain (between limbic system and pre frontal region exhibited in behavior, stop limbic system that engages in urges) - Biochemical Imbalances- imbalances in the levels of neurotransmitters or hormones, or poor functioning of receptors cause mental disorders - Genetic Abnormalities- disordered genes lend to mental disorders Diagram of Brain pg. 31 4 lobes of the cortex (physiological and functional separation) - Occipital lobe- controls vision, back of brain - Temporal lobe- in hearing - Parietal lobe- controls sensory factors - Frontal lobe- behind of forehead, memory and executive decisions, what we think about - Corpus callosum- thick nerve that allows transmissions between left and right side of brain Neurotransmitters p.33 receptors called dendrites of cell body catch neurotransmitters and when enough transmitters bind to dendrites, tells neuron to fire electric signal through axon to synaptic terminals w/ more neural transmitters. There lies synaptic cleft w/ next neuron Neuron takes message, transmit to electrical then chemical message Uptake- Synapse that released into synaptic gap and bound to dendrite and releases it and synaptic takes back Endocrine System- system of glands that produce chemicals called hormones - Hypothalamic- pituitary- adrenal axis (HPA axis) affects immune system, energy, digestive system o Ex. If lion behind you, feel sudden need to either fight or run Genetic Factors in Abnormality - Behavioral Genetics: o To what extent are behaviors or behavioral tendencies inherited? o What are the processes by which genes affect behavior? - Complex series of genes that result in certain unusual behavioral act - Epigenetics- not only does genes influence behavior, behavior influences genes o Genes not activated all the time, but certain pattern of behavior help gene express itself o Ex. Trying to be a risk taker, express other genes that weren’t previously utilized Drug/ Biological Therapies for Mental Disorders - Antipsychotic drugs- reduce symptoms of psychosis (loss of reality, hallucination, delusion) - Antidepressant drugs- reduce depression (sadness, appetite loss, sleep deprivation) o prevent reuptake, block it so serotonin stays in gap so next neuron can pick it up - Lithium- reduce mania (agitation, excitement, grandiosity) Brain Stimulation Techniques - Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)- create short term seizure to brain to help reset things, help depression and drug addiction - Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)- put on cap w/ magnetic waves and penetrates skull to surface region of brain and stimulates it to address disorder associated w/ the region o Cure ringing in ear (neurological not physiological disorder) - Deep Brain Stimulation- implant electrode in brain, zap it and de/activate part of brain Psychosurgery - Prefrontal lobotomy- separate frontal lobe from rest of brain, thought to cure psychosis but associated w/ memory loss, seizures, etc. - Lesions Psychodynamic Approaches - Focus on unconscious processes - Includes psychoanalysis and several newer approaches - Freud developed psychoanalysis o A theory of personality and psychopathology o A method of investigating the mind o A form of treatment for psychopathology - PD Therapies: Help clients recognize the sources of their unconscious conflicts (insight is key goal) Freud’s 3 systems of the Human Psyche - Id- pleasure principle, primary process is wish fulfillment (animalistic) o Difficult to retrieve material and well below surface of awarene
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