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Chapter 5- Anxiety Disorders.docx

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PSYC 353
Richard Yi

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CHAPTER 5 9/25/12 Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder – consequence of experiencing extreme stressors Gender and cross cultural differences - Women w/ greater vulnerability - Cultural response to stressors Diagnosis requires: - Re-experiencing of the traumatic event - Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated w/ trauma and emotional numbing o Shun activities and people that remind them of event - Hypervigilance and chronic arousal o Always on guard for traumatic event to recur, create panic or flight from sounds/ images Acute Stress disorder- short term response to traumas (dissociative symptoms) Adjustment disorder- emotional and behavioral symptoms that arise w/in 3 months of experience of stressor Biological factors - Sympathetic and parasympathetic system ( response to central nervous system) - Genetics - Major hormone released in fight or flight response is cortisol (high levels= elevated stress response) Treatments for PTSD - Cognitive behavioral therapy- systematic desensitization (get habituated to a stimulus), challenge irrational thoughts - Stress Management- reduce stress, minimize intrusive thoughts (meditation) - Biological Therapies- antianxiety and antidepressant drugs Panic Disorder- characterized by panic attacks (short, recurrent intense periods of anxiety/fear) - Pg. 125 - Agoraphobia- fear of a public panic attack (1/3- ½ of panic disorder) o Don’t want to embarrass themselves Theories of Panic Disorder: - Genetics (identical and fraternal twin studies) - Neurobiological contributors- dysregulated limbic system - Cognitions- interpretation of bodily sensations, interoception (your interpretation of bodily senses, sense of own heart beat) o Interpret normal body sensations as something stressful (feel racing heartbeat) o Interoceptive conditioning- heightened awareness of bodily cues (slight arousal or anxiety) that occurred before previous panic attacks and have become conditioned stimulus signaling new panic attacks Integrated model of panic disorder /w agoraphobia pg. 127 - Classical and operant conditioning Biological treatments: tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 1. Relaxation and breathing exercises 2. Identify catastrophizing cognitions they have about changes in bodily sensations 3. Practice relax/breathe while experiencing panic symptoms 4. Challenge catastrophizing thoughts 5. Systematic desensitization a. Behavior therapy that attempts to reduce client anxiety through relaxation techniques and progressive exposure to feared stimuli PHOBIAS – fear must be excessive or unreasonable, interfere with functioning, activities, relationships - 12% of US exhibit phobia, more common in females - Specific phobias- fear of specific items or situations o Animal Type (snake and spiders) o Natural Environment Type (heights, storms, water) o Situational Type (tunnels, flying, bridges) o Blood Injection Injury Type (fear seeing blood, injury)- experience drop in blood pressure and heart rate and faint (in contrast to other types - Social phobias- fear of social encounters (social anxiety disorder) o Fear of public speaking, moderate anxiety about social situations, severe fear Theories of Phobias - Psychodynamic- displacement of issues on another source o Ex. Tunnels represent vaginal cannal, during development that part of identity in Oedipus complex went unresolved - Biological- heritability studies - Behavioral o Negative reinforcement- engage in behavior that makes something bad go away, engage in avoidance behavior more.  Conditioned Avoidant Response- avoid so never have to experience anxiety again  Ex. Avoiding spiders decreases anxiety so likely to avoid again o Prepared classical conditioning- what tend to be afraid of are what something in our evolutionary history posed a threat  Ex. Thousands of years ago, didn’t have natural fear of snake but killed by one, so fear might be evo
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