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Physical Science
PSC 101

PSC notes Chapter 1 8/29/2013 5:47:00 AM  Mass is not equal to weight  Weight is based on gravitational pull  Force- a push or a pull  Scalar- a quantity that is just a number with no direction  Vector- a quantity with direction and magnitude Chapter 2 Notes 8/29/2013 5:47:00 AM Homework due 9/10 Kilogram = 2.2 lbs 1 meter = almost 1 yard force= mass x acceleration kg x m /s^2 = newtons constipation of angular momentum- how cats always land on their feet inertial reference frame rotation causes an inertial reference frame acceleration = change in velocity / change in time newtons 3 laws: 1. states that a body at rest will remain at rest, and a body in motion will remain in motion with a constant velocity, unless acted upon by a force. This law is also called the law of inertia 2. states that a force acting on a body is equal to the acceleration of that body times its mass. Expressed mathematically, F = ma, where F is the force in Newtons, m is the mass of the body in kilograms, and a is the acceleration in meters per second per second. 3. states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Thus, if one body exerts a force F on a second body, the first body also undergoes a force of the same strength but in the opposite direction. Demonstrations: 1. fly8ing disc with center makes a parabola 2. motion detector with the graph of the coffee filter and textbook falling 3. vacuum of penny and feather falling at the same time (air resistance) – putting energy in through heat 4. 2 balls- free falling and horizontal velocity and they hit the floor simultaneously – parabolic trajectories 5. ball aimed at target by a launcher will not hit the target because of gravity but a photogate drops the target at the same time that the ball is released will the target freefall- the only thing accelerating is gravity coulomb friction- condition of impending motion rd know inertia reference fram and the 3 law and system- 2 objects that are interacting Chapter 3 8/29/2013 5:47:00 AM impulse momentum theorem:  momentum = ->p = m ->v  to change ->p, need to apply an external force over some time interval  ΔP/ ΔT = Δ (m->v)/ Δt  Case 1- F = constant over change in t  Case 2- F changes magnitude but not direction of t1-t2 Conservation of linear momentum: “in the absence of any net external force, the momentum of a system remains unchanged Collisions- for two objets (1,2) colliding between before (i), after (f)  (m1v1) + (m2v2) = (m1v1)f + (m2v2)f  works for elastic and inelastic collisions work = force/distance potential energy- kinetic energy. How much you use unit in joules changing one joule per second is a watt demonstrations:  newtons first law  newtons 3 rdlaw  collisions – when a small mass and a larger mass collide the larger one stops after the second collision every time  the pendulum is not fully elastic because of air resistance. The balls are warmer because of the transferred energy chp 4- gravity, projectiles, and satellites 8/29/2013 5:47:00 AM Newton- universal law of gravitation  I F I = gm1m2/ d^2  M1__________d____________M2  G= 6.67x10^-11 N m^2/kg^2  M= earths mass= 6x10^24 kg Center of mass- Center of gravity- Page 98- experiment about firing the ball and releasing the target and them hitting at the same time Geosynchratis- satellites that are at the same point in the sky so they stay synchronized Conservative force => (implies) KE+PE conserved KE- kenetic energy PE- potential energy Can show Peg= - GMm/d  M= earths mass  m= object mass KE= PE= 0+0 as d  infinity 1/2mVe^2 + -GMm/d =0 Ve= square root of 2GM/d = square root of 2gd Ve- escape velocity PE=mgh When you shoot something it will follow a trajectory called a parabola Satellite orbit is a projectile moving fast enough to never hit the earth Same with the moon- the moon is constantly falling towards earth but the earth is also falling away from the moon Chapter 5 8/29/2013 5:47:00 AM 4 states of matter  solids  liquids (fluid)  gases (fluid)  plasma kinematics- watching forces move statics dynamics density = mass/volume ρ (rho) ρ (liquid water) = 1000 kg/m^3 ρ (air) = 1kg/m^3 pressure- force per area  si- 1 pascal= 1 pa=1N/m^2  1kPa = 1000 pa static pressure in a liquid (not moving)  suppose you have 1m^3 = V, has the density = ρ kg/m^3  mass = M = ρ V kg  weight = w = Mg N liquid water , ρ= 100kg/m^3 p = (100kg/m^3) (10m/s^2) (1m) = ρgh [kg/m^3] [m/s^2] [m] =10,000 N/m^3 10,000 Pa =10 kPa every meter that you go down in depth you increase the pressure by 10kPa p (atm) = 100kPa 1013.25 mbar demonstrations:  block in water to show density  2 balls with the same mass and different volumes, one sinks and one floats. Chapter 6- Thermal Energy 8/29/2013 5:47:00 AM dynamics- Bernoulli p= pressure ρ = density z= heigh v= velocity v^2/2 + p/ρ +gz = constant high pressure forms below the air flow and low pressure above it height order of air flow:  drag force  low pressure  high pressure  weight baseball- flow around boundary layer energy law of thermal dynamics- define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems. The laws describe how these quantities behave under various circumstances, and forbid certain phenomena (such as perpetual motion).  zeroeth law: f two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.  Ex: wood vs metal – wood doesn’t have free electrons (no current), the metal has free electrons Change E= change Q-change W  E-internal energy  Q-heat  W-work Ideal gas – change E= CvChangeT C= specific heat capacity measure in [joules/(kg x Kelvin)] Things expand in heat (typically) The maximum density of fresh water is 4 degrees C. then the water at the bottom is less dense and will cause rotation in the water until the entire body is the same temperature Temperature scales- 212F was originally based on the natural body temperature 32 F demonstrations: thermal expansion Chapter 7 8/29/2013 5:47:00 AM Thermodynamic Energy Heat – basically just energy moving “Hot” just means something has a higher kinetic energy Transfer of energy from point A to point B · Conduction – plays a role everywhere, flow of heat has to do with free electrons · Convection/advection – convection is essentially up and down (ex. clouds); a flux of heat upwards o If you cool water enough, you can make it sink § There is a sea-to-air heat transfer § Map of ocean currents in book § The gulf stream carries t
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