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PSC 101
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Physical Science

PSC 101

Leaman

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PSC notes Chapter 1 8/29/2013 5:47:00 AM
Mass is not equal to weight
Weight is based on gravitational pull
Force- a push or a pull
Scalar- a quantity that is just a number with no direction
Vector- a quantity with direction and magnitude Chapter 2 Notes 8/29/2013 5:47:00 AM
Homework due 9/10
Kilogram = 2.2 lbs
1 meter = almost 1 yard
force= mass x acceleration
kg x m /s^2 = newtons
constipation of angular momentum- how cats always land on their feet
inertial reference frame
rotation causes an inertial reference frame
acceleration = change in velocity / change in time
newtons 3 laws:
1. states that a body at rest will remain at rest, and a body in motion will
remain in motion with a constant velocity, unless acted upon by a force.
This law is also called the law of inertia
2. states that a force acting on a body is equal to the acceleration of that
body times its mass. Expressed mathematically, F = ma, where F is the
force in Newtons, m is the mass of the body in kilograms, and a is the
acceleration in meters per second per second.
3. states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Thus,
if one body exerts a force F on a second body, the first body also
undergoes a force of the same strength but in the opposite direction.
Demonstrations:
1. fly8ing disc with center makes a parabola
2. motion detector with the graph of the coffee filter and textbook falling
3. vacuum of penny and feather falling at the same time (air resistance) –
putting energy in through heat
4. 2 balls- free falling and horizontal velocity and they hit the floor
simultaneously – parabolic trajectories
5. ball aimed at target by a launcher will not hit the target because of
gravity but a photogate drops the target at the same time that the ball is
released will the target
freefall- the only thing accelerating is gravity
coulomb friction- condition of impending motion
rd
know inertia reference fram and the 3 law and
system- 2 objects that are interacting Chapter 3 8/29/2013 5:47:00 AM
impulse momentum theorem:
momentum = ->p = m ->v
to change ->p, need to apply an external force over some time
interval
ΔP/ ΔT = Δ (m->v)/ Δt
Case 1- F = constant over change in t
Case 2- F changes magnitude but not direction of t1-t2
Conservation of linear momentum: “in the absence of any net external force,
the momentum of a system remains unchanged
Collisions- for two objets (1,2) colliding between before (i), after (f)
(m1v1) + (m2v2) = (m1v1)f + (m2v2)f
works for elastic and inelastic collisions
work = force/distance
potential energy- kinetic energy. How much you use
unit in joules
changing one joule per second is a watt
demonstrations:
newtons first law
newtons 3 rdlaw
collisions – when a small mass and a larger mass collide the larger
one stops after the second collision every time
the pendulum is not fully elastic because of air resistance. The balls
are warmer because of the transferred energy chp 4- gravity, projectiles, and satellites 8/29/2013 5:47:00 AM
Newton- universal law of gravitation
I F I = gm1m2/ d^2
M1__________d____________M2
G= 6.67x10^-11 N m^2/kg^2
M= earths mass= 6x10^24 kg
Center of mass-
Center of gravity-
Page 98- experiment about firing the ball and releasing the target and them
hitting at the same time
Geosynchratis- satellites that are at the same point in the sky so they stay
synchronized
Conservative force => (implies) KE+PE conserved
KE- kenetic energy
PE- potential energy
Can show Peg= - GMm/d
M= earths mass
m= object mass
KE= PE= 0+0 as d infinity
1/2mVe^2 + -GMm/d =0
Ve= square root of 2GM/d = square root of 2gd
Ve- escape velocity
PE=mgh
When you shoot something it will follow a trajectory called a parabola
Satellite orbit is a projectile moving fast enough to never hit the earth
Same with the moon- the moon is constantly falling towards earth but the
earth is also falling away from the moon Chapter 5 8/29/2013 5:47:00 AM
4 states of matter
solids
liquids (fluid)
gases (fluid)
plasma
kinematics- watching forces move
statics
dynamics
density = mass/volume
ρ (rho)
ρ (liquid water) = 1000 kg/m^3
ρ (air) = 1kg/m^3
pressure- force per area
si- 1 pascal= 1 pa=1N/m^2
1kPa = 1000 pa
static pressure in a liquid (not moving)
suppose you have 1m^3 = V, has the density = ρ kg/m^3
mass = M = ρ V kg
weight = w = Mg N
liquid water , ρ= 100kg/m^3
p = (100kg/m^3) (10m/s^2) (1m) = ρgh
[kg/m^3] [m/s^2] [m]
=10,000 N/m^3
10,000 Pa =10 kPa
every meter that you go down in depth you increase the pressure
by 10kPa
p (atm) = 100kPa
1013.25 mbar
demonstrations:
block in water to show density
2 balls with the same mass and different volumes, one sinks and
one floats. Chapter 6- Thermal Energy 8/29/2013 5:47:00 AM
dynamics- Bernoulli
p= pressure
ρ = density
z= heigh
v= velocity
v^2/2 + p/ρ +gz = constant
high pressure forms below the air flow and low pressure above it
height order of air flow:
drag force
low pressure
high pressure
weight
baseball- flow around boundary layer
energy
law of thermal dynamics- define fundamental physical quantities
(temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic
systems. The laws describe how these quantities behave under various
circumstances, and forbid certain phenomena (such as perpetual motion).
zeroeth law: f two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a
third system, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.
Ex: wood vs metal – wood doesn’t have free electrons (no current),
the metal has free electrons
Change E= change Q-change W
E-internal energy
Q-heat
W-work
Ideal gas – change E= CvChangeT
C= specific heat capacity measure in [joules/(kg x Kelvin)]
Things expand in heat (typically)
The maximum density of fresh water is 4 degrees C. then the water at the
bottom is less dense and will cause rotation in the water until the entire
body is the same temperature
Temperature scales- 212F was originally based on the natural body temperature
32 F
demonstrations:
thermal expansion Chapter 7 8/29/2013 5:47:00 AM
Thermodynamic Energy
Heat – basically just energy moving
“Hot” just means something has a higher kinetic energy
Transfer of energy from point A to point B
· Conduction – plays a role everywhere, flow of heat has to do with free
electrons
· Convection/advection – convection is essentially up and down (ex.
clouds); a flux of heat upwards
o If you cool water enough, you can make it sink
§ There is a sea-to-air heat transfer
§ Map of ocean currents in book
§ The gulf stream carries t

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