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PSC 101 Chapter Notes -Inverse-Square Law, Electric Potential Energy, Thermal Energy

Physical Science
Course Code
PSC 101

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Physical Science Study Guide:
Chapter 1
Meaning of static and dynamic equilibrium
o When the forces on a stationary object add up to zero, the object is
in equilibrium static equilibrium
o Dynamic equilibrium when an object is moving at a constant
speed in a straight-line path
Moves at an unchanging speed and direction
o Net Force is zero for both equilibriums
o An object under only one force cannot be in equilibrium
Mass and Inertia
o Every material object possesses inertia; the more matter the more
o Mass is a measure of inertia of a material object
The quantity of matter in an object. It is also the measure of
the inertia or the sluggishness that an object exhibits in
response to any effort made to start it, stop it, or change its
state of motion in any way.
o Inertia the property by which objects resist to changes in motion
Acceleration- rate at which velocity changes w/ time in m/s^2
Air resistance- force of friction action on object due to motion in air
Equilibrium rate- all forces add up to 0
Force- a push or a pull
Free fall- falling only under influence of gravity; no air resistance
Friction- resistive force that opposes the motion/ attempted motion of an
object past another with which its in contact
Inertia- the property of things to resist changes in motion
Mass- quantity of matter in an object
Net force- combination of all forces acting on an object
Speed- distance traveled per time
Support/normal force- force that supports an object against gravity
Vector- arrow representing magnitude and direction of a quantity
Velocity- the speed of an object and specification of its direction of motion
Volume- quantity of space an object occupies
Weight- force due to gravity on an object; force with which a body presses
against a supporting surface
Mks units- expresses any given measurement using fundamental units of the
meter, kilogram, and/or second (MKS)

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Chapter 2
Newton’s Three Laws
o Newton’s First Law – the law of inertia:
An object at rest tends to remain at rest; an object in
motion will remain in motion at a constant speed along a
straight path
Property to resist change in motion is called inertia.
Objects undergo change in motion only in the presence of a
net force
o Newton’s Second Law – the law of acceleration
When a net force acts on an object, the object accelerates
Acceleration is directly proportional to the net force and
inversely proportional to the mass
Acceleration is always in the direction of the force
When an object falls in a vacuum, the net force is simply the
weight and the acceleration is g
When an object falls in air, the net force is equal to the
weight minus the force of air resistance, and the
acceleration is less than g
o Newton’s Third Law – the law of action-reaction
Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the
second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the
Forces occur in pairs; one is an action the other is reaction;
they always act on different objects; neither could exist
without the other
Force pair- the action and reaction pair of forces that occur in an interaction
Interaction- mutual action between objects during which each object exerts
an equal and opposite force on the other
Newton’s first law- an object in motion stays in motion and an object at rest
stays at rest unless acted on by a net force
Newton’s second law- the acceleration produced by a net force on an object is
directly proportional to the net force, in the same direction
Newton’s third law- whenever one object exerts a force on another, the
second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first
Terminal speed- the speed at which the acceleration of a falling object
terminates when air resistance balances its weight
Terminal velocity- terminal speed in a given direction (often downward)

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Chapter 3
Momentum inertia in motion; mass of an object multiplied by its
o The greater the net force on an object, the greater its change in
velocity and therefore the greater its change in momentum
o Both the force and time interval are important in changing
Force x Time = Impulse
Impulse-Momentum relationship the impulse is equal to the change in
momentum the impulse causes
o The greater the impulse exerted on something, the greater the
change in momentum
Law of Conservation of Momentum In the absence of an external force,
the momentum of a system remains unchanged
o Momentum before and after collision is the same
Work-Energy Theorem
o Emphasizes the role of change
o Applies to increasing speed as well as decreasing speed
Power: relates work to the amount of time it takes to do that work
o Rate at which energy is changed from one form to another
Conservation of energy for machines- the work output of any machine cannot
exceed the work input in an ideal machine, where no energy is transformed
into thermal energy:
Work (input) = work (output) and fd (input) = fd (output)
Efficiency- percentage of work put into a machine that is converted into
useful work output
Efficiency = useful work output/total work output
Elastic collision- a collision in which colliding objects rebound without
lasting deformation of the generation of heat
Energy- the property of a system that enables it to do work
Impulse- product of the force acting on an object and the time during which it
Impulse momentum relationship- impulse is equal to the change in the
momentum of an object that the impulse acts upon Ft = Δ (MV)
Inelastic collision- a collision in which the colliding objects become distorted,
generate heat, or possibly stick together
Kinetic energy- energy of motion, quantified by the relationship:
KE= 1/2MV^2
Law of conservation of energy- energy cannot be created or destroyed; it
may be transformed but the total amount of energy never changes
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